• G protein-coupled receptors at the crossroad between physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis: old paradigms and emerging concepts.

      De Francesco, Ernestina M; Sotgia, Federica; Clarke, Robert B; Lisanti, Michael P; Maggiolini, M; Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutrition Sciences, University of Calabria via Savinio, 87036 Rende, Italy. (2017-12-14)
      G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in transmitting signals across the extra- and intra-cellular compartments, thus allowing environmental stimuli to elicit critical biological responses. As GPCRs can be activated by an extensive range of factors including hormones, neurotransmitters, phospholipids and other stimuli, their involvement in a plethora of physiological functions is not surprising. Aberrant GPCR signaling has been regarded as a major contributor to diverse pathologic conditions, such as inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. In this regard, solid tumors have been demonstrated to activate an angiogenic program that relies on GPCR action to support cancer growth and metastatic dissemination. Therefore, the manipulation of aberrant GPCR signaling could represent a promising target in anticancer therapy. Here, we highlight the GPCR-mediated angiogenic function focusing on the molecular mechanisms and transduction effectors driving the patho-physiological vasculogenesis. Specifically, we describe evidence for the role of heptahelic receptors and associated G proteins in promoting angiogenic responses in pathologic conditions, especially tumor angiogenesis and progression. Likewise, we discuss opportunities to manipulate aberrant GPCR-mediated angiogenic signaling for therapeutic benefit using innovative GPCR-targeted and patient-tailored pharmacological strategies.
    • G1 control gene status is frequently altered in resectable non-small cell lung cancer.

      Betticher, Daniel C; White, Gavin R M; Vonlanthen, S; Liu, X; Kappeler, A; Altermatt, H J; Thatcher, Nick; Heighway, Jim; Institute of Medical Oncology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland. (1997-10-21)
      Progression through the mammalian cell cycle is controlled by a series of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and cdk inhibitors. Cyclin D1, cdk4 and the tumour suppressors p16 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) are thought to comprise a linked system governing cell passage through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Extending an earlier study on cyclin D1 expression, a series of resectable non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) was examined for defects in other elements of this control system. Forty-six of fifty-one NSCLC specimens exhibited at least one alteration of these cell-cycle regulators. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that 33% and 47% of the tumours failed to express pRb and p16, respectively. Failure to detect pRb did not correlate with loss of heterozygosity at the RB1 locus. Eleven of 12 tumours showing positive (normal) pRb staining over-expressed nuclear localised cyclin D1, including 8 with amplification of the cyclin D1 gene (CCNDI). However, in a number of lesions (n = 5) where cyclin D1 was over-expressed but localised to the cytoplasm, pRb expression was undetectable. Sequencing of exons 1 and 2 of the p16 gene (CDKN2) revealed 3/51 tumours with somatic mutations (in addition to 1 case with a germ-line alteration). All of these lesions were positive for p16 protein. No clear homozygous deletions of CDKN2 were observed by multiplex PCR. As assessed by immunostaining using a p16 monoclonal antibody, there was an inverse correlation of pRb and p16 down-regulation. Whilst patients with tumours over-expressing cyclin D1 had a significantly lower incidence of local relapse, the group whose tumours failed to express pRb had a significantly greater risk of local relapse and tended to have shortened event-free survival. Our data show that alteration of at least one cell cycle-regulator gene occurs in the majority of resectable NSCLCs.
    • G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity in fibroblasts of ataxia-telangiectasia heterozygotes and a Li-Fraumeni syndrome patient with radioresistant cells.

      Mitchell, Erika L D; Scott, David; CRC Department of Cancer Genetics, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Withington, Manchester, UK. (1997-10)
      PURPOSE: To investigate whether the good discrimination we previously observed between ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) heterozygotes and normal donors for induction of chromosome aberrations by X-rays in G2 lymphocytes is also seen in G2 fibroblasts. Also to investigate the G2 radiosensitivity of a patient with the cancer-prone Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) whose fibroblasts are resistant to the lethal effects of radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblasts were exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays and harvested for metaphase analysis 90 min later. RESULTS: Four A-T heterozygote cell strains were all more sensitive than seven normal controls. The LFS strain with a germline TP53 mutation was twice as sensitive as the mean control value. CONCLUSIONS: Although chromosomal, radiosensitivity is seen in A-T heterozygotes and LFS cells, the former are radiosensitive and the latter radioresistant to cell killing. Repair defects may predominate in A-T heterozygotes, inadequate genome surveillance in LFS cells.
    • Gamma irradiation of the fetus damages the developing hemopoietic microenvironment rather than the hemopoietic progenitor cells.

      Yang, F T; Lord, Brian I; Hendry, Jolyon H; CRC Department of Experimental Haematology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, England. (1995-03)
      Hemopoiesis is the product of two components: the hemopoietic tissue and the regulatory stromal microenvironment in which it resides. Plutonium-239, incorporated during fetal development, is known to cause deficient hemopoiesis. A predetermined equivalent gamma-ray dose has now been used in combination with cross-transplantation experiments to separate these two components and define where the damage arises. It was confirmed that 1.8 Gy gamma irradiation at midterm gestation caused a 40% reduction in the hemopoietic stem (spleen colony-forming) cell population of their offspring which persisted to at least 24 weeks of age. Spleen colony formation after sublethal doses of gamma rays reflected this reduced complement of endogenous stem cells. The regulatory hemopoietic microenvironment, measured as fibroblastoid colony-forming cells, was similarly depleted. Normal growth of the CFU-S population after transplantation into standard recipients showed that the quality of the stem cell population in the offspring of irradiated mothers was not affected. By contrast, when used as recipients of a bone marrow transplant from either normal or irradiated offspring, the offspring of irradiated mothers were unable to support normal growth: there was a twofold difference in the number of CFU-S per femur for at least 100 days after transplantation. There were 70% fewer CFU-F in the femur 1 month after bone marrow transplantation when the offspring of irradiated mothers were used as transplant recipients compared to when normal offspring were used. This not only confirmed their reduced capacity to host normal stem cells but also indicated that CFU-F in the transplant were unable to compensate for the poor microenvironment in the irradiated offspring hosts. It is concluded that irradiation at midterm gestation damages the developing regulatory microenvironment but not the hemopoietic stem cell population that it hosts.
    • Gamma-ray-induced cell killing and chromosome abnormalities in the bone marrow of p53-deficient mice.

      Wang, L; Cui, Y; Lord, Brian I; Roberts, Stephen A; Potten, Christopher S; Hendry, Jolyon H; Scott, David; Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie CRC Research Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom. (1996-09)
      Resistance to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation has been demonstrated in a wide variety of cell types with defects in the p53 gene (thymocytes, splenic B and T cells, in vitro hemopoietic colony-forming cells and intestinal cells of the mouse, embryo cells of the rat, and human Burkitt's lymphoma cells). In contrast, Slichenmeyer et al. (Cancer Res. 53, 4164-4167, 1993) found no evidence of resistance in fibroblasts derived from p53 null mice. The aim of our study was to compare the radiation response of hemopoietic colony-forming cells (in vitro CFC) and of fibroblastoid colony-forming cells or units (CFU-F) within the same tissue (marrow) in p53 null mice (-/-), heterozygotes (+/-) and wild-type animals (+/+). We have also tested the hypothesis that, in proliferating cells, radiation-induced cell killing is mediated through chromosome damage by examining the relationship between these end points in hemopoietic cells of the three mouse types. Both in vitro CFC and CFU-F of -/- mice were resistant to cell killing compared with +/+ and +/- mice whose cellular sensitivities were indistinguishable. The resistance was characterized by a broader "shoulder" on the cell survival curve, i.e. a higher extrapolation number but similar D0 values using the multitarget model or a lower alpha coefficient using the linear-quadratic model. The frequency of chromosomally abnormal marrow cells after irradiation was similar for the three genotypes. However, marrow cells with aberrations carried more aberrations in -/- mice than in +/+ or +/- mice such that the total number of aberrations per 100 cells was higher in -/- mice. Since there were no differences in the yields of aberrations between genotypes in spleen lymphocytes or in CFU-F (both noncycling at the time of irradiation) and less mitotic inhibition in -/- marrow cells than in +/+ or +/- cells, the chromosomal radiosensitivity of -/- marrow hemopoietic cells might be related to reduced cell cycle delay allowing insufficient time for repair, but other explanations have been considered. We postulate that the radiation resistance of both hemopoietic CFC and CFU-F in -/- mice is a consequence of the failure of DNA/chromosome damage to trigger apoptosis or permanent cell cycle arrest to the same extent as in the +/+ or +/- mice: hence the lack of correlation between chromosome damage and cell death in the three mouse types.
    • The gastrointestinal syndrome and mucosal clonogenic cells: relationships between target cell sensitivities, LD50 and cell survival, and their modification by antibiotics.

      Hendry, Jolyon H; Potten, Christopher S; Roberts, N P; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX (1983-10)
      The sensitivity of the target cells responsible for the gastrointestinal syndrome in mice was deduced from the steepness of the dose-survival curve for mice assessed on Day 7 after irradiation. The D0 value was 1.25 +/- 0.22 Gy, virtually identical to the value of 1.23 +/- 0.08 measured for microcolony-forming cells (clonogens) over about the same range of dose in concurrent experiments. The survival of clonogens was similar when assayed in mice surviving to Days 3, 4, or 5, but clonogenic sensitivity was lower when assessed on Day 7. This was shown at one dose to be due largely to a selection of mice with high colony counts with only a small contribution from crypt budding. The LD50 for mice corresponded to a surviving fraction of crypts of about 0.35. An injection of 5 mg streptomycin sulphate ip daily for 5 days after irradiation increased the latent period by about 1 day, increased the LD50 by about 1.4 Gy, but did not significantly change the survival of clonogens. These studies are the first to test and satisfy the interpretation of a dose-response curve for animal survival in terms of "target cell" survival, where measurements of both are made over a similar range of dose in concurrent experiments.
    • A GATA-2/estrogen receptor chimera functions as a ligand-dependent negative regulator of self-renewal.

      Heyworth, Clare M; Gale, Karin; Dexter, T Michael; May, Gillian; Enver, Tariq; Cancer Research Campaign (CRC) Section of Hematopoietic Cell and Gene Therapeutics, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Hospital National Health Service Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (1999-07-15)
      The transcription factor GATA-2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and is functionally implicated in their survival and proliferation. We have used estrogen and tamoxifen-inducible forms of GATA-2 to modulate the levels of GATA-2 in the IL-3-dependent multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell model FDCP mix. Ligand-dependent induction of exogenous GATA-2 activity did not rescue cells deprived of IL-3 from apoptosis. However, induction of GATA-2 activity in cells cultured in IL-3 blocked factor-dependent self-renewal but not factor-dependent survival: Cells undergo cell cycle arrest and cease proliferating but do not apoptose. This was accompanied by differentiation down the monocytic and granulocytic pathways. Differentiation occurred in the presence of IL-3 and did not require addition of exogenous differentiation growth factors such as G-CSF or GM-CSF normally required to induce granulomonocytic differentiation of FDCP-mix cells. Conversely, EPO-dependent erythroid differentiation was inhibited by GATA-2 activation. These biological effects were obtained with levels of exogenous GATA-2 representing less than twofold increases over endogenous GATA-2 levels and were not observed in cells overexpressing GATA-1/ER. Similar effects on proliferation and differentiation were also observed in primary progenitor cells, freshly isolated from murine bone marrow and transduced with a GATA-2/ER-containing retrovirus. Taken together, these data suggest that threshold activities of GATA-2 in hematopoietic progenitor cells are a critical determinant in influencing self-renewal versus differentiation outcomes.
    • Gata2, Fli1, and Scl form a recursively wired gene-regulatory circuit during early hematopoietic development

      Pimanda, John E; Ottersbach, Katrin; Knezevic, Kathy; Kinston, Sarah; Chan, Wan Y I; Wilson, Nicola K; Landry, Josette-Renee; Wood, Andrew D; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Green, Anthony R; et al. (2007-11-06)
      Conservation of the vertebrate body plan has been attributed to the evolutionary stability of gene-regulatory networks (GRNs). We describe a regulatory circuit made up of Gata2, Fli1, and Scl/Tal1 and their enhancers, Gata2-3, Fli1+12, and Scl+19, that operates during specification of hematopoiesis in the mouse embryo. We show that the Fli1+12 enhancer, like the Gata2-3 and Scl+19 enhancers, targets hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and relies on a combination of Ets, Gata, and E-Box motifs. We show that the Gata2-3 enhancer also uses a similar cluster of motifs and that Gata2, Fli1, and Scl are expressed in embryonic day-11.5 dorsal aorta where HSCs originate and in fetal liver where they multiply. The three HSC enhancers in these tissues and in ES cell-derived hemangioblast equivalents are bound by each of these transcription factors (TFs) and form a fully connected triad that constitutes a previously undescribed example of both this network motif in mammalian development and a GRN kernel operating during the specification of a mammalian stem cell.
    • GEFs: Dual regulation of Rac1 signaling.

      Marei, Hadir; Malliri, Angeliki; Cell Signaling Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester , Manchester M20 4BX (2016)
      GEFs play a critical role in regulating Rac1 signaling. They serve as signaling nodes converting upstream signals into downstream Rac1-driven cellular responses. Through associating with membrane-bound Rac1, GEFs facilitate the exchange of GDP for GTP, thereby activating Rac1. As a result, Rac1 undergoes conformational changes that mediate its interaction with downstream effectors, linking Rac1 to a multitude of physiological and pathological processes. Interestingly, at least 20 GEFs have been shown to activate Rac1, suggesting a more complex role of GEFs in regulating Rac1 signaling apart from promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP. Indeed, accumulating evidence implicates GEFs in directing the specificity of Rac1-driven signaling cascades, although the underlying mechanisms were poorly defined. Recently, through conducting a comparative study, we highlighted the role of two Rac-specific GEFs, Tiam1 and P-Rex1, in dictating the biological outcome downstream of Rac1. Importantly, further proteomic analysis uncovered a GEF activity-independent role of both GEFs in modulating the Rac1 interactome, which results in the stimulation of GEF-specific signaling cascades. Here, we provide an overview of our recent findings and discuss the role of GEFs as master regulators of Rac1 signaling with a particular focus on GEF-mediated modulation of cell migration following Rac1 activation.
    • A gel-free quantitative proteomics analysis of factors released from hypoxic-conditioned placentae.

      Blankley, R T; Robinson, N J; Aplin, J D; Crocker, I P; Gaskell, S J; Whetton, Anthony D; Baker, P N; Myers, J E; Maternal and Fetal Health Research Group, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK. richard.blankley-2@manchester.ac.uk (2010-03)
      Characterizing the protein factors released from placentae during pathogenesis remains a key objective toward understanding preeclampsia and related pregnancy disorders. Gel-free proteomics technologies applied to placental explant-conditioned media offers the potential of identifying these factors. Relative quantification mass spectrometry using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling was employed to compare the ''secretome'' between healthy term placental tissue cultured under both normoxic and hypoxic oxygen tensions. Of the 499 proteins identified, 45 were differentially expressed (P < .01 level), including interleukin 8 (IL-8) which was significantly upregulated under hypoxia. Global protein level changes are suggestive of decreased extracellular matrix remodeling under the same conditions. A significant enrichment of soluble liberated placental factors is achieved using this model system. Identifying these changes resulting from hypoxic conditioning is hypothesis generating and may provide new mechanistic insights into preeclampsia.
    • Gemcitabine plus best supportive care (BSC) vs BSC in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer--a randomized trial with quality of life as the primary outcome. UK NSCLC Gemcitabine Group. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

      Anderson, Heather; Hopwood, Penelope; Stephens, R J; Thatcher, Nick; Cottier, B; Nicholson, M; Milroy, Robert; Maughan, T S; Falk, S J; Bond, M G; et al. (2000-08)
      Three hundred patients with symptomatic, locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC not requiring immediate radiotherapy were enrolled into this randomized multicentre trial comparing gemcitabine + BSC vs BSC alone. Patients allocated gemcitabine received 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle, for a maximum of six cycles. The main aim of this trial was to compare patient assessment of a predefined subset of commonly reported symptoms (SS14) from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 scales. The primary end-points were defined as (1) the percentage change in mean SS14 score between baseline and 2 months and (2) the proportion of patients with a marked (> or = 25%) improvement in SS14 score between baseline and 2 months sustained for > or =4 weeks. The secondary objectives were to compare treatments with respect to overall survival, and multidimensional QL parameters. The treatment groups were balanced with regard to age, gender, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and disease stage (40% had metastatic disease). The percentage change in mean SS14 score from baseline to 2 months was a 10% decrease (i.e. improvement) for gemcitabine plus BSC and a 1% increase (i.e. deterioration) for BSC alone (P = 0.113, two-sample t-test). A sustained (> or = 4 weeks) improvement (> or =25%) on SS14 was recorded in a significantly higher proportion of gemcitabine + BSC patients (22%) than in BSC alone patients (9%) (P = 0.0014, Pearson's chi-squared test). The QLQ-C30 and L13 subscales showed greater improvement in the gemcitabine plus BSC arm (in 11 domains) than in the BSC arm (one symptom item). There was greater deterioration in the BSC alone arm (six domains/items) than in the gemcitabine + BSC arm (three QL domains). Tumour response occurred in 19% (95% CI 13-27) of gemcitabine patients. There was no difference in overall survival: median 5.7 months (95% CI 4.6-7.6) for gemcitabine + BSC patients and 5.9 months (95% CI 5.0-7.9) (log-rank, P = 0.84) for BSC patients, and 1 -year survival was 25% for gemcitabine + BSC and 22% for BSC. Overall, 74 (49%) gemcitabine + BSC patients and 119 (79%) BSC patients received palliative radiotherapy. The median time to radiotherapy was 29 weeks for gemcitabine + BSC patients and 3.8 weeks for BSC. Patients treated with gemcitabine + BSC reported better QL and reduced disease-related symptoms compared with those receiving BSC alone. These improvements in patient-assessed QL were significant in magnitude and were sustained.
    • The gene for the naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome acts as a tumour-suppressor gene in medulloblastoma.

      Cowan, Richard A; Hoban, Paul R; Kelsey, Anna M; Birch, Jillian M; Gattamaneni, Rao; Evans, D Gareth R; CRC Department of Cancer Genetics, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (1997)
      Individuals with naevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin) syndrome are at increased risk of developing medulloblastoma in childhood. We have shown that approximately 5% of patients with Gorlin syndrome will develop this complication in the first few years of life, and in addition 10% of patients with medulloblastoma diagnosed at age 2 years or under have Gorlin syndrome. One out of three medulloblastomas occurring in patients with Gorlin syndrome was shown to have lost the wild-type allele on 9q, indicating that the Gorlin locus probably acts as a tumour suppressor in the development of this tumour. We have also confirmed this role in a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from the same individual. Information from these families would suggest that Gorlin syndrome is more common than previously recognized and may not always be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone even in middle life.
    • Gene function prediction using semantic similarity clustering and enrichment analysis in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

      Tedder, P M R; Bradford, James R; Needham, C J; McConkey, G A; Bulpitt, A J; Westhead, D R; Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. (2010-10-01)
      MOTIVATION: Functional genomics data provides a rich source of information that can be used in the annotation of the thousands of genes of unknown function found in most sequenced genomes. However, previous gene function prediction programs are mostly produced for relatively well-annotated organisms that often have a large amount of functional genomics data. Here, we present a novel method for predicting gene function that uses clustering of genes by semantic similarity, a naïve Bayes classifier and 'enrichment analysis' to predict gene function for a genome that is less well annotated but does has a severe effect on human health, that of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. RESULTS: Predictions for the molecular function, biological process and cellular component of P.falciparum genes were created from eight different datasets with a combined prediction also being produced. The high-confidence predictions produced by the combined prediction were compared to those produced by a simple K-nearest neighbour classifier approach and were shown to improve accuracy and coverage. Finally, two case studies are described, which investigate two biological processes in more detail, that of translation initiation and invasion of the host cell. AVAILABILITY: Predictions produced are available at http://www.bioinformatics.leeds.ac.uk/∼bio5pmrt/PAGODA.
    • Gene therapy of patient-derived T lymphocytes to target and eradicate colorectal hepatic metastases.

      Sheen, Aali J; Irlam, Joely J; Kirillova, Natalia; Guest, Ryan D; Sherlock, David J; Hawkins, Robert E; Gilham, David E; Cancer Research United Kingdom, Department of Medical Oncology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, University of Manchester, United Kingdom. (2003-06)
      PURPOSE: The overall aim of this study was to develop a novel treatment for colorectal cancer based on the use of gene therapy. Genetic modification of T lymphocytes has been used to specifically target and kill tumor cell lines directly. To test the efficacy of this method with clinically relevant materials, this study investigated the potential of T lymphocytes derived from patients with advanced colorectal disease to target autologous primary tumor material. METHODS T lymphocytes isolated preoperatively were modified genetically with recombinant retroviruses encoding CD3zeta-based chimeric immune receptors and were tested for functional activity against freshly isolated autologous tumor cells harvested from hepatic colorectal metastases. RESULTS: Patient-derived T cells were successfully transduced, and chimeric immune receptor expression was confirmed. Carcinoembryonic antigen expression on freshly isolated colorectal tumor cells was also demonstrated by molecular and immunohistochemical techniques. T cells expressing the anticarcinoembryonic antigen receptor were specifically activated by coculture with disaggregated or intact, diced tumor, whereas control non-carcinoembryonic antigen-targeted T-cell populations failed to activate. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that gene-targeted primary T lymphocytes depict specific functional activity against autologous colorectal tumor cells. This evidence indicates that chimeric immune receptor-expressing T cells may be able to circumvent the mechanisms used by tumor cells to avoid immune cell activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the potential of this approach as a therapy for carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing primary colorectal tumor and its metastases.
    • Gene transfer to augment the therapeutic index of anticancer chemotherapy.

      Baum, C; Margison, Geoffrey P; Eckert, H G; Fairbairn, Leslie J; Ostertag, W; Rafferty, Joseph A (1996-01)
    • Gene-specific linear trends constrain transcriptional variability of the toll-like receptor signaling

      Bagnall, J.; Rowe, W.; Alachkar, N.; Roberts, J.; England, H.; Clark, Christopher; Platt, M.; Jackson, D. A.; Muldoon, M.; Paszek, P.; et al. (2020)
      Single-cell gene expression is inherently variable, but how this variability is controlled in response to stimulation remains unclear. Here, we use single-cell RNA-seq and single-molecule mRNA counting (smFISH) to study inducible gene expression in the immune toll-like receptor system. We show that mRNA counts of tumor necrosis factor α conform to a standard stochastic switch model, while transcription of interleukin-1β involves an additional regulatory step resulting in increased heterogeneity. Despite different modes of regulation, systematic analysis of single-cell data for a range of genes demonstrates that the variability in transcript count is linearly constrained by the mean response over a range of conditions. Mathematical modeling of smFISH counts and experimental perturbation of chromatin state demonstrates that linear constraints emerge through modulation of transcriptional bursting along with gene-specific relationships. Overall, our analyses demonstrate that the variability of the inducible single-cell mRNA response is constrained by transcriptional bursting.
    • General criteria for radioassays by colloid scintillation counting under optimal conditions.

      Fox, Brian W; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (1974-05)
    • A general method for the detection and mapping of submicrogram quantities of glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides on polyacrylamide gels by sequential staining with azure A and ammoniacal silver.

      Lyon, Malcolm; Gallagher, John T; Cancer Research Campaign Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom. (1990-02-15)
      A sensitive method has been developed for the visualization of nonradiolabeled glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using fixation with azure A followed by staining with ammoniacal silver. This method, which can detect as little as 1-2 ng of a single oligosaccharide species, can be used to stain a few micrograms of a complex oligosaccharide mixture. The combination of gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sequential azure A/silver staining can be applied to the analysis of all the complex glycosaminoglycans (i.e., heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate) and hyaluronate, as well as to comparisons of specificities of the glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes. This procedure may be particularly valuable in situations where the availability of glycosaminoglycan is very limited and/or where radiolabeling is impractical or undesirable.
    • General report on the European Union concerted action workshop on 11q23, London, UK, May 1997.

      Secker-Walker, L M; Harrison, Christine J; Department of Haematology, The Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, UK. (1998-05)
      Seventeen cytogenetic laboratories in eight European countries contributed karyotypic, hematological, clinical and follow-up data from 550 patients with an acquired abnormality of 11q23. The patients had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (254), acute myeloid leukemia (250), unspecified, undifferentiated, biphenotypic acute leukemia or myeloproliferative disorder (18 cases together), or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (28). The patients were classified by cytogenetic subgroup as t(4;11) (183 cases), t(6;11) (30) cases), t(9;11) (125 cases), t(10;11) (20 cases), t(11;19) (53 cases), 'other' abnormalities of 11q23 (82 cases) and del(11)(q23) (57 cases). Manuscripts were prepared on each cytogenetic subgroup, on MDS, on secondary hematological malignancies (40 cases) and on 11q23-translocation derivatives. For each subgroup the following aspects were investigated: associated clinical features, additional karyotypic change, distribution between hematological subtypes and between different age groups, prognosis at different age groups, and the impact of bone marrow transplantation on survival. The Workshop confirmed some previous findings from smaller studies, challenged others, identified new chromosomal partners and threw new light on less well documented aspects of 11q23 malignancies. The large number of cases investigated in a coordinated manner gives authoritative support to the findings. The Workshop thus demonstrates the value of collaborative European studies in the cytogenetics of malignancy.