• DNA synthesis with methylated poly(dC-dG) templates. Evidence for a competitive nature to miscoding by O(6)-methylguanine.

      Abbott, Peter J; Saffhill, Roy (1979-03-28)
      The alternating copolymer poly(dC-dG) has been methylated with either dimethyl sulphate or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and the levels of the various methylation products determined. In addition to the 3-methylcytosine, 3-methylguanine and 7-methylguanine (produced by both agents) reaction with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea also yielded easily detectable amounts of O(6)-methylguanine and phosphotriesters. These methylated polymers were then used as templates in an in vitro assay with Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I measuring the incorporation of complementary (dCMP and dGMP) and noncomplementary (dAMP and dTMP) nucleotides. When the dimethyl sulphate-methylated polymer was used as template there was virtually no detectable incorporation of non-complementary nucleotides indicating that no miscoding could be attributed to the presence of 3-methylcytosine, 3-methylguanine or 7-methylguanine. However, when the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-methylated polymer was used as template there was a specific incorporation of dTMP but not of dAMP. The amount of dTMP incorporated was always less than the level of O(6)-methylguanine in the template and was found to vary with the relative concentrations of the deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates in the assay. As the amount of dCTP present in the assay was decreased the wrong incorporation of dTMP increased and approached the level that would have been expected for a one-to-one miscoding by O(6)-methylguanine as the concentration of dCTP approached zero. The results indicate that O(6)-methylguanine is capable of miscoding with a DNA polymerase but the miscoding is competitive with the normal incorporation of dCMP: when the 5'-triphosphate precursors are present in equal amounts approximately one O(6)-methylguanine in three miscodes leading to the incorporation of dTMP.
    • DNA-synthesis with methylated poly(dA-dT) templates: possible role of O4-methylthymine as a pro-mutagenic base.

      Abbott, Peter J; Saffhill, Roy (1977-03)
      The alternating copolymer poly(dA-dT) has been methylated with either dimethyl sulphate (DMS) or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and the levels of the various methylation products determined. In addition to the methylated adenines formed by both methylating agents, MNU resulted also in the formation of 3-methylthymine, O4-methylthymine and phosphotriesters. The methylated polymers have been ution of complementary and non-complementary nucleotides determined. With the DMS methylated template no wrong nucleotide incorporation was detectable, but with the MNU methylated polymer the incorporation of dGMP was observed. The amount of dGMP incorporated correlated with the level of O4-methylthymine in the template over the range of methylation studied. The results indicate that O4-methylthymine is capable of miscoding on a one-to-one basis while the products of DMS methylation (1-, 3- and 7-methyladenines), and also possibly the phosphotriesters, do not lead to any misincorporation.
    • The formation of acetylaminofluorene adducts in poly(dC-dG) and poly(dA-dT) on reaction with N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and the effect of such modification upon the polymers as templates for DNA polymerases.

      Saffhill, Roy; Abbott, Peter J; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester, M20 9BX (1983)
      N-Acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AcO-AAF) reacts with the alternating DNA-like polynucleotides poly(dC-dG) and poly(dA-dT) in vitro to give adducts of the guanine and adenine bases similar to those reported to be formed in DNA. A previously unobserved guanine adduct was detected in the poly(dC-dG). Using a double-labelled [U-14C-dG, 8-3H-G]-poly(dC-dG) we show that this adduct does not involve the 7- or 8-positions of the guanine. Similarly a thymine adduct of unknown structure was observed in poly(dA-dT). Modification of the polymers with AcO-AAF inhibits their capacity to act as templates for Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and mammalian DNA polymerase alpha although the binding of the polymerases to the polynucleotides is unaffected. Such modification also leads to an increase in the levels of non-complementary nucleotides incorporated into newly synthesised DNA.
    • Formation of O2-methylthymine in poly(dA-dT) on methylation with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and dimethyl sulphate. Evidence that O2-methylthymine does not miscode during DNA synthesis.

      Saffhill, Roy; Abbott, Peter J; Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester (1978-06)
      The alternating co-polymer has been methylated with either N methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) or dimethyl sulphate (DMS) and the levels of the various methylated thymidines (O2-methylthymidine, 3-methylthymidine and O4-methylthymidine) measured. MNU produced all three compounds whereas DMS only produced 3-methylthymidine and O2-methylthymidine at detectable levels. These results have been combined with our earlier results concerning the misincorporation of dGMP with E. coli DNA polymerase using MNU-methylated poly(dA-dT). These results indicate that O2-methylthymidine does not miscode during DNA synthesis.