• Monocytoid B cell lymphoma.

      Banerjee, Saumitra S; Harris, Martin; Eyden, Brian P; Radford, John A; Harrison, Christine J; Mainwaring, A R; Department of Histopathology, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester. (1991-01)
      The clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and cytogenetic features of a case of monocytoid B cell lymphoma were investigated. The tumour initially affected the cervical and supraclavicular nodes, but 33 months later affected the left parotid salivary gland. The patient had subclinical Sjögren's syndrome. The neoplastic cells showed characteristic morphological features and had peri- and interfollicular distribution in the node. Immunocytochemically the tumour cells were L26, 4KB5, MB2, CD19, CD20, CD22 and IgM/kappa positive. Prominent plasmablastic plasmacytoid differentiation was present in the recurrent tumour, suggesting an origin from post-follicular B cells. The lymphoma cells showed unusual cytogenetic abnormalities.
    • Monosomy 20 as a pointer to dicentric (9;20) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

      Clark, R; Byatt, S A; Bennett, C F; Brama, M; Martineau, M; Moorman, A V; Roberts, K; Secker-Walker, L M; Richards, S; Eden, Tim O B; et al. (2000-02)
      Twenty new cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with the dicentric chromosome dic(9;20)(p1113;q11) are presented. This chromosomal abnormality is difficult to identify from G-banding alone. It masquerades as monosomy 20 and is only accurately identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Monosomy 20 was found in 59/2790 patients with successful karyotypes entered to the Leukaemia Research Fund/UK Cancer Cytogenetics Group Karyotype Database in ALL (LRF/UKCCG Karyotype Database). FISH revealed dic(9;20) in 20/25 cases with available material. Extra copies of chromosome 21 were found in 8 of the 20 cases. Patients were 14 females and six males, aged 1-32 years (median 4 years), with leukocyte counts of 2-536 (median 23) x 109/l and immunophenotypes of common or pre-B ALL (17 cases), T-ALL (one case) or unknown (two cases). Four patients relapsed at 2, 22, 28 and 47 months and two died at 49 and 63 months (median follow-up 37 months). FISH studies on the remaining five patients showed one with monosomy 20 and four with other rearrangements of the chromosome. This study has increased the number of reported cases of dic(9;20) from 17 to 37. It has identified dic(9;20) in one case of T-ALL and shows an association of this translocation with trisomy 21.
    • Monotypic angiomyolipoma of the nasal cavity: a heretofore undescribed occurrence.

      Banerjee, Saumitra S; Eyden, Brian P; Trenholm, P W; Sheikh, M Y; Wakamatsu, K; Ancans, J; Rosai, J; Department of Histopathology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (2001-10)
      A monotypic angiomyolipoma of the nasal cavity in a 34-year-old woman is described. Tumor cells were spindled or epithelioid and contained glycogen and diastase-resistant PAS-positive granules. There were few mitoses, and necrosis was absent, indicating a benign tumor. The stroma was markedly vascular, and a few adipocytes were seen in one area. Cells were positive for melanocyte and muscle markers. Electron microscopy revealed abundant dense granules. Although melanin was absent histochemically, it was present using a chemical assay, and the granules may, therefore, be atypical melanosomes. Fine actin filaments, attachment plaques and lamina were present. Initial assessment of the lesion indicated malignant melanoma, but the immunostaining and histologic features indicated monotypic angiomyolipoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case in the nasal cavity.
    • Monte Carlo simulation of a TEPC for microdosimetry of carbon ions.

      Galer, S; Shipley, D; Palmans, H; Kirkby, Karen J; Nisbet, A; Acoustic and Ionising Radiation, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK (2017-11)
    • Monte Carlo simulations of direct DNA damage on gold nanoparticle enhanced proton therapy.

      Sotiropoulos, M; Henthorn, N; Warmenhoven, J; Mackay, Ranald I; Kirkby, Karen J; Merchant, Michael J; University Of Manchester, Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (2018)
    • A Monte Carlo study of different LET definitions and calculation parameters for proton beam therapy

      Smith, Edward A K; Winterhalter, Carla; Underwood, Tracy S A; Aitkenhead, Adam H; Richardson, Jenny C; Merchant, Michael J; Kirkby, Norman; Kirkby, Karen J; Mackay, Ranald I; Division of Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester, M13 9PL (2021)
      The strongin vitroevidence that proton Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) varies with Linear Energy Transfer (LET) has led to an interest in applying LET within treatment planning. However, there is a lack of consensus on LET definition, Monte Carlo (MC) parameters or clinical methodology. This work aims to investigate how common variations of LET definition may affect potential clinical applications. MC simulations (GATE/GEANT4) were used to calculate absorbed dose and different types of LET for a simple Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) and for four clinical PBT plans covering a range of tumour sites. Variations in the following LET calculation methods were considered: (i) averaging (dose-averaged LET (LETd) & track-averaged LET); (ii) scoring (LETdto water, to medium and to mass density); (iii) particle inclusion (LETdto all protons, to primary protons and to particles); (iv) MC settings (hit type and Maximum Step Size (MSS)). LET distributions were compared using: qualitative comparison, LET Volume Histograms (LVHs), single value criteria (maximum and mean values) and optimised LET-weighted dose models. Substantial differences were found between LET values in averaging, scoring and particle type. These differences depended on the methodology, but for one patient a difference of ∼100% was observed between the maximum LETdfor all particles and maximum LETdfor all protons within the brainstem in the high isodose region (4 keVμm-1and 8 keVμm-1respectively). An RBE model using LETdincluding heavier ions was found to predict substantially different LET-weighted dose compared to those using other LET definitions. In conclusion, the selection of LET definition may affect the results of clinical metrics considered in treatment planning and the results of an RBE model. The authors' advocate for the scoring of dose-averaged LET to water for primary and secondary protons using a random hit type and automated MSS.
    • A Monte Carlo study on the collimation of pencil beam scanning proton therapy beams.

      Charlwood, Frances C; Aitkenhead, Adam H; Mackay, Ranald I; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre (MAHSC), Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre (MAHSC), Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom and Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre (MAHSC), Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom and Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom; Manchester Academic Health Science Centre (MAHSC), Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom and Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom (2016-03)
    • Morbidity following low-dose-rate selectron therapy for cervical cancer

      Sherrah-Davies, E; The Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester, UK (1985)
    • More than a prolactinoma.

      Basu, Ambar; Brabant, Georg E; Gnanalingham, K K; Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (2008-05-07)
    • Morphologic characteristics of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a case report.

      Ru, Y; Zhang, P; Dong, S; Wang, H; Zhao, S; Mi, Y; Eyden, Brian P; Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Tianjin China (2014-02)
      Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive lymphoma derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells or precursor dendritic cells. Despite some 240 reported cases, its morphology and especially ultrastructure has not been satisfactorily studied. A case is reported of a 13 year old boy, who, despite chemotherapy, died within a 12-month period. The electron microscopy findings - microvillous processes, nuclei with slight irregularities, a moderate amount of heterochromatin, and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the form of long, narrow profiles, often in parallel arrangements - taken together, serve to distinguish BPDCN from other neoplastic cells, such as monocytes, plasma cells and the cells of chronic lymphocyte leukemia.
    • Morphological and immunophenotypic variations in malignant melanoma.

      Banerjee, Saumitra S; Harris, Martin; Department of Histopathology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (2000-05)
      A variety of cytomorphological features, architectural patterns and stromal changes may be observed in malignant melanomas. Hence, melanomas may mimic carcinomas, sarcomas, benign stromal tumours, lymphomas, plasmacytomas and germ cell tumours. Melanomas may be composed of large pleomorphic cells, small cells, spindle cells and may contain clear, signet-ring, pseudolipoblastic, rhabdoid, plasmacytoid or balloon cells. Various inclusions and phagocytosed material may be present in their cytoplasm. Nuclei may show bi- or multi-nucleation, lobation, inclusions, grooving and angulation. Architectural variations include fasciculation, whorling, nesting, trabeculation, pseudoglandular/pseudopapillary/pseudofollicular, pseudorosetting and angiocentric patterns. Myxoid or desmoplastic changes and very rarely pseudoangiosarcomatous change, granulomatous inflammation or osteoclastic giant cell response may be seen in the stroma. The stromal blood vessels may exhibit a haemangiopericytomatous pattern, proliferation of glomeruloid blood vessels and perivascular hyalinization. Occasionally, differentiation to nonmelanocytic structures (Schwannian, fibro-/myofibroblastic, osteocartilaginous, smooth muscle, rhabdomyoblastic, ganglionic and ganglioneuroblastic) may be observed. Typically melanomas are S100 protein, NKIC3, HMB-45, Melan-A and tyrosinase positive but some melanomas may exhibit an aberrant immunophenotype and may express cytokeratins, desmin, smooth muscle actin, KP1 (CD68), CEA, EMA and VS38. Very rarely, neurofilament protein and GFAP positivity may be seen.
    • Morphological features of fascia lata in relation to fascia diseases.

      Szotek, S; Dawidowicz, J; Eyden, Brian P; Matysiak, N; Czogalla, A; Dudzik, G; Leśniewicz, A; Maksymowicz, K; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mechatronics and Theory of Mechanisms, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering , Wroclaw University of Science and Technology , Wroclaw , Poland (2016-10-20)
      Fascia lata is an important element of the fascial system, which forms the continuum of connective tissue throughout the body. This deep fascia envelops the entire thigh and hip area and its main function is to transmit mechanical forces generated by the musculoskeletal system of the lower extremities. Fascia lata is also known as a useful and easily harvested graft material. Despite its crucial role in lower extremity biomechanics and wide-ranging applications in plastic and reconstructive surgery, both the structure of fascia lata and particularly the cells populating this tissue are relatively unexplored and therefore poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize the main cell populations encountered within human fascia lata and to try to understand their role in health and diseases. Pathologically unchanged human fascia lata was obtained post mortem from adult males. The specimens were analyzed under light, electron, and confocal microscopy. On the basis of different visualization techniques, we were able to characterize in detail the cells populating human fascia lata. The main cells found were fibroblasts, fibrocytes, mast cells, cells showing myoid differentiation, nerve cells, and most interestingly, telocytes. Our results supplement the formerly inadequate information in the literature regarding the cellular components of deep fascial structure, may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of fascial disorders and improve fascia lata application as a graft material.
    • Morphological variants of plasma cell tumours.

      Banerjee, Saumitra S; Verma, S; Shanks, Jonathan H; Department of Histopathology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. liz.ryan@christie-tr.nwest.nhs.uk (2004-01)
    • The morphology and distribution of lymph node metastases in stage IB/IIA cervical carcinoma: relationship to prognosis

      Hale, R J; Buckley, C H; Fox, H; Wilcox, F L; Tindall, V R; Logue, John P; Departments of Reproductive Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester (1991)
    • A morphometric analysis of individual cell-death in bronchial carcinoids.

      Alsaffar, N; Moore, James V; Hasleton, Philip S (1990)
    • Mortality and serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein 3 concentrations.

      Friedrich, Nele; Haring, Robin; Nauck, Matthias; Lüdemann, Jan; Rosskopf, Dieter; Spilcke-Liss, Elisabeth; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus; Brabant, Georg E; Völzke, Henry; et al. (2009-05)
      BACKGROUND: Previous studies provided conflicting results regarding the association of serum IGF-I or IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the relation of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: From the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) 1988 men and 2069 women aged 20-79 yr were followed up on average 8.5 yr. Causes of deaths were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassays and categorized into three groups (low, normal, high) according to the sex- and age-specific 10th and 90th percentiles. RESULTS: Adjusted analyses revealed that men with low but not high IGF-I levels had an almost 2-fold higher risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35; 2.73)], CVD mortality [HR 1.92 (95% CI 1.00; 3.71)], and cancer mortality [HR 1.85 (95% CI 1.00; 3.45)] compared with men with normal IGF-I levels. In women, no association between IGF-I and mortality was found. Moreover, low IGFBP-3 levels were associated with higher all-cause mortality in men [HR 1.87 (95% CI 1.31; 2.64)] and women [HR 1.63 (95% CI 0.96; 2.76)]. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found inverse associations between IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels and mortality from all causes, CVD, or cancer in men and between IGFBP-3 and all-cause mortality in women.
    • Mortality from carcinoma of the cervix.

      Yule, Robert; Christie Hospital, Withington, Manchester, M20 4BX, UK (1978-05-13)
    • Mortality patterns over 34 years of breast cancer patients in a clinical trial of post-operative radiotherapy.

      Jones, J M; Ribeiro, G; Department of Medical Statistics, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (1989-03)
      Between January 1949 and June 1955 a clinical trial was held in which patients with operable breast carcinoma were subjected to a radical mastectomy and then randomised to either have immediate post-operative radiotherapy (radiated group) or delayed radiotherapy on recurrence (watched group). Data relating to the 1461 patients entered in the trial have been analysed to investigate the late effects of treatment, if any, over a period of 34 years. A logrank comparison of the survival patterns of the radiated and watched groups, considering all deaths, during the first 15 years of follow-up did not show any statistically significant difference (P = 0.37). However, after 15 years there was a significantly increased mortality in the radiated group (P = 0.0025). The relative risk after 15 years for the radiated group relative to the watched group was 1.43 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.13 to 1.81. Taking the series as a whole, this increased mortality was attributable to deaths from cardiovascular disease (excluding cerebrovascular disease). There was no evidence that the increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease was significantly different between patients who had a left- or right-sided tumour. There was also no significant difference between the watched and radiated group from mortality due to breast cancer or other malignancies. The data analysed here relate to patients treated 40 years ago. Neither the type of surgery nor the techniques and quality of radiation are used any longer. Furthermore, an artificial radiation menopause has also fallen into disuse. Data should be prospectively gathered from more recent trials, to see if there is any hazard in the very long term from present day methods of treatment. These should include patients treated by lesser forms of surgery, supervoltage therapy, adjuvant hormone and/or chemotherapy.
    • Mortality within 30days following systemic anti-cancer therapy, a review of all cases over a 4year period in a tertiary cancer centre.

      Khoja, Leila; McGurk, Antony; O'Hara, Catherine; Chow, Shien; Hasan, Jurjees; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UKThe Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK (2015-01)
      The national confidential enquiry into patient outcomes and death (NCEPOD) set important benchmarks in assessing the quality of care received by patients dying within 30days of systemic anticancer therapy (SACT). Monthly morbidity and mortality audits conducted to recommendations in the NCEPOD were commenced at the Christie NHS Foundation Trust in 2009, specifically to assess and improve patient outcomes.