• Human lymphocyte traffic assessed by indium-111 oxine labelling: clinical observations.

      Wagstaff, John; Gibson, C; Thatcher, Nick; Ford, W L; Sharma, H; Crowther, Derek (1981-03)
      Clinical studies using indium-111 oxine labelling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes are presented. Data from animal models of lymphocyte migration are compared with results found in healthy subjects and patients with malignant neoplasms. The physiological significance of bone marrow and liver localization on gamma camera imaging is discussed and the importance of considering the surface marker characteristics of the lymphocytes under study, when interpreting results, is emphasized. The possibility that the redistribution of lymphocytes within the body is a cause of the peripheral blood lymphopenia in patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies is suggested, and the usefulness of indium-111 oxine labelling in clarifying this problem is proposed.
    • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) status may impact treatment outcomes in patients with pre-cancerous penile lesions (an eUROGEN Study)

      Ashley, Sophie; Shanks, Jonathan H; Oliveira, Pedro; Lucky, M.; Parnham, Arie S; Lau, Maurice W; Sangar, Vijay K; Departments of Urology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, (2020)
      Penile intra-epithelial neoplasia (PeIN) is a known precursor for penile cancer. It may be undifferentiated or differentiated. The former is related to high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and associated with p16 over-expression. Patients may present with red patches or lesions on the penis which on occasion may affect sexual activity.This study will assess associations between p16 status, patient parameters, treatment choice and outcomes. Data were collected on patients diagnosed with PeIN, who were referred to a single European Network, between 2008 and 2018. The following parameters were collected utilising patient records: demographics, smoking status, performance status, comorbidities, HPV/p16 status, lichen sclerosus (LS) status, treatment and clinical response. Log rank, Kaplan-Meier, Pearson Chi-Squared and Fishers Exact test were utilised to determine significance. One hundred thirty-seven patients were identified with PeIN and no invasive cancer. Staining for p16 was available in 91 patients and 74 patients were p16+. There were no significant differences in disease-free survival (DFS) for smoking status, performance status, comorbidities and lichen sclerosus, although patients with lichen sclerosus tended to recur sooner. Overall, p16+ patients showed significantly better DFS over p16- patients (n = 67; 10.4 vs 7.4 months; p = 0.023). In p16+ patients receiving treatment with imiquimod alone or with surgery, response rates were 100% vs 54% without imiquimod (n = 56; p = 0.017). In p16- patients receiving treatment with imiquimod alone or with surgery, response rates were 100% vs 56% without imiquimod (n = 17; p = 0.99). Overall 13.6% of patients progressed to cancer. The results indicate treatment combinations with immunotherapy tend to provide better responses despite p16 status. Patients with p16+ disease have a longer disease-free survival. Approximately 14% of patients progress to invasive disease. However, given the limitations in this study, further research is required to confirm these findings.
    • Human papillomavirus; the challenge of post-transplant virus, a case study

      Leather, Angela; Stringer, Jacqui; The Christie Hospital, Manchester (2019)
    • Human peritoneal adhesions show evidence of tissue remodeling and markers of angiogenesis.

      Epstein, Jonathan C; Wilson, Malcolm S; Wilkosz, Sylwia; Ireland, Grenham; O'Dwyer, Sarah T; Herrick, Sarah E; Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, and Department of Surgery, Christie Hospital, Manchester, M13 9PT, United Kingdom. (2006-12)
      PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the vascular structure and angiogenic activity of human peritoneal adhesions. METHODS: Adhesions were collected from patients undergoing laparotomy (n=32). Histologic features were documented and the distribution of mature and immature vascular markers were determined by immunolocalization and quantified by image analysis. The three-dimensional organization of blood vessels was investigated by confocal microscopy. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, its receptor flk-1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were assessed by immunohistochemistry as indicators of angiogenic activity. RESULTS: Adhesions were found to be vascularized structures comprising bundles of collagen, interspersed with varying amounts of adipose tissue. Functional blood vessels expressed recognized vascular markers (vWF, CD34, alpha-SMA, and CD105) and formed a branching network similar to that of the peritoneum. Those adhesions expressing vascular endothelial growth factor A and its receptor showed significantly higher numbers of immature vessels as defined by expression of CD105. Omental adhesions (n=16) contained significantly more adipose tissue (P<0.05) and displayed a higher microvessel density (P<0.01) but lower cellularity (P<0.05) compared with nonomental adhesions (n=16). CONCLUSIONS: All adhesions contained functional blood vessels and most showed evidence of cell proliferation. The presence of vascular endothelial growth factor A and its receptor in human adhesions suggests ongoing angiogenic activity. This study demonstrates that adhesions are vascular structures with evidence of tissue remodeling and suggests potential for new prevention strategies involving antiangiogenic therapies.
    • Human TRIB2 oscillates during the cell cycle and promotes ubiquitination and degradation of CDC25C.

      Liang, K; Paredes, R; Carmody, R; Eyers, P; Meyer, Stefan; McCarthy, T; Keeshan, K; Leukemia Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (2016-08-23)
      Tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) is a member of the mammalian Tribbles family of serine/threonine pseudokinases (TRIB1-3). Studies of TRIB2 indicate that many of the molecular interactions between the single Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) protein and interacting partners are evolutionary conserved. In this study, we examined the relationship between TRIB2 and cell division cycle 25 (CDC25) family of dual-specificity protein phosphatases (mammalian homologues of Drosophila String), which are key physiological cell cycle regulators. Using co-immunoprecipitation we demonstrate that TRIB2 interacts with CDC25B and CDC25C selectively. Forced overexpression of TRIB2 caused a marked decrease in total CDC25C protein levels. Following inhibition of the proteasome, CDC25C was stabilized in the nuclear compartment. This implicates TRIB2 as a regulator of nuclear CDC25C turnover. In complementary ubiquitination assays, we show that TRIB2-mediated degradation of CDC25C is associated with lysine-48-linked CDC25C polyubiquitination driven by the TRIB2 kinase-like domain. A cell cycle associated role for TRIB2 is further supported by the cell cycle regulated expression of TRIB2 protein levels. Our findings reveal mitotic CDC25C as a new target of TRIB2 that is degraded via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inappropriate CDC25C regulation could mechanistically underlie TRIB2 mediated regulation of cellular proliferation in neoplastic cells.
    • HUWE1 ubiquitylates and degrades the RAC activator TIAM1 promoting cell-cell adhesion disassembly, migration, and invasion.

      Vaughan, L; Tan, C; Chapman, A; Nonaka, Daisuke; Mack, N; Smith, Duncan L; Booton, R; Hurlstone, A; Malliri, Angeliki; Cell Signalling Group, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4BX (2015-01-06)
      The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 ubiquitylation site prevents TIAM1 degradation, antagonizing scattering, and invasion. Moreover, simultaneous depletion of TIAM1 restores migration and invasion in HUWE1-depleted cells. Significantly, we show that HUWE1 stimulates human lung cancer cell invasion through regulating TIAM1 stability. Finally, we demonstrate that HUWE1 and TIAM1 protein levels are inversely correlated in human lung carcinomas. Thus, we elucidate a critical role for HUWE1 in regulating epithelial cell-cell adhesion and provide additional evidence that ubiquitylation contributes to spatiotemporal control of RAC.
    • Hybrid perforator flaps: Introducing a new concept in perforator flap surgery

      Kosutic, Damir; Consultant Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon, Department of Plastic Surgery, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, M20 4BX Manchester (2019)
      INTRODUCTION: Although perforator propeller flaps provide a safe and reliable reconstructive option, they are often limited in size, reach and degrees of freedom due to venous insufficiency. As a result, partial flap necrosis, particularly at the tip of the flap, may occur in some cases causing the loss of substance. To overcome this problem, we present a new concept of hybrid perforator flaps. METHODS: From May 2014 to October 2017, 25 Hybrid perforator flaps were performed to reconstruct a variety of defects in upper and lower extremities following the removal of soft-tissue malignancies. Hybrid flaps included 14 hybrid radial collateral artery perforator propeller (RCAP) flaps, 7 hybrid propeller anterolateral thigh perforators (ALTs), 3 hybrid medial sural perforator flaps and one hybrid saphenous perforator flap. Following the excision of malignancy, several superficial skin veins were dissected on the edge of defect to be used as potential recipient vessels for venous supercharging. Hybrid flap design included the dissection of one or two superficial veins on the edge of the flap, which was used for prophylactic supercharging. The perforator flap was then raised in a usual fashion and rotated into the defect. Microsurgical venous anastomosis was performed between the previously prepared superficial flap vein and vein on the edge of defect. RESULTS: Venous stasis was encountered following flap rotation in 12 out of 25 flaps and was immediately resolved following venous anastomosis. No venous congestion was encountered perioperatively in the remaining 13 flaps. Healing was uneventful in 24 flaps with 100% flap surface area healed primarily and excellent functional/aesthetic outcome. Partial loss was found in only one single flap, with overall 96% success rate and 4% complication rate. CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid perforator flaps have the advantage of improved reliability, versatility and safety. In the author's experience, technique is reliable and obviates the need for flap monitoring. By including a superficial vein in the initial flap design and resectional defect, larger flaps can be harvested more reliably. The hybrid flap concept could potentially improve outcomes of propeller flaps. Our experience shows reduced complications when this technique is utilised with success rates comparable to free flaps.
    • Hybrid robotic posterior pelvic clearance - a video vignette.

      Vitone, Louis; Smith, Michael; Selvasekar, Chelliah; Departments of Surgery, The Christie Hospital, Manchester (2016-06)
    • Hydrogen peroxide fuels aging, inflammation, cancer metabolism and metastasis: the seed and soil also needs "fertilizer".

      Lisanti, Michael P; Martinez-Outschoorn, U E; Lin, Z; Pavlides, S; Whitaker-Menezes, D; Pestell, R G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, F; The Jefferson Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Center, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. (2011-08-01)
      In 1889, Dr. Stephen Paget proposed the "seed and soil" hypothesis, which states that cancer cells (the seeds) need the proper microenvironment (the soil) for them to grow, spread and metastasize systemically. In this hypothesis, Dr. Paget rightfully recognized that the tumor microenvironment has an important role to play in cancer progression and metastasis. In this regard, a series of recent studies have elegantly shown that the production of hydrogen peroxide, by both cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, may provide the necessary "fertilizer," by driving accelerated aging, DNA damage, inflammation and cancer metabolism, in the tumor microenvironment. By secreting hydrogen peroxide, cancer cells and fibroblasts are mimicking the behavior of immune cells (macrophages/neutrophils), driving local and systemic inflammation, via the innate immune response (NFκB). Thus, we should consider using various therapeutic strategies (such as catalase and/or other anti-oxidants) to neutralize the production of cancer-associated hydrogen peroxide, thereby preventing tumor-stroma co-evolution and metastasis. The implications of these findings for overcoming chemo-resistance in cancer cells are also discussed in the context of hydrogen peroxide production and cancer metabolism.
    • Hyperactivation of oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in epithelial cancer cells in situ: visualizing the therapeutic effects of metformin in tumor tissue.

      Whitaker-Menezes, D; Martinez-Outschoorn, U; Flomenberg, N; Birbe, R; Witkiewicz, A; Howell, Anthony; Pavlides, S; Tsirigos, A; Ertel, A; Pestell, R; et al. (2011-12-01)
      We have recently proposed a new mechanism for explaining energy transfer in cancer metabolism. In this scenario, cancer cells behave as metabolic parasites, by extracting nutrients from normal host cells, such as fibroblasts, via the secretion of hydrogen peroxide as the initial trigger. Oxidative stress in the tumor microenvironment then leads to autophagy-driven catabolism, mitochondrial dys-function, and aerobic glycolysis. This, in turn, produces high-energy nutrients (such as L-lactate, ketones, and glutamine) that drive the anabolic growth of tumor cells, via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. A logical prediction of this new "parasitic" cancer model is that tumor-associated fibroblasts should show evidence of mitochondrial dys-function (mitophagy and aerobic glycolysis). In contrast, epithelial cancer cells should increase their oxidative mitochondrial capacity. To further test this hypothesis, here we subjected frozen sections from human breast tumors to a staining procedure that only detects functional mitochondria. This method detects the in situ enzymatic activity of cytochrome C oxidase (COX), also known as Complex IV. Remarkably, cancer cells show an over-abundance of COX activity, while adjacent stromal cells remain essentially negative. Adjacent normal ductal epithelial cells also show little or no COX activity, relative to epithelial cancer cells. Thus, oxidative mitochondrial activity is selectively amplified in cancer cells. Although COX activity staining has never been applied to cancer tissues, it could now be used routinely to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, and to establish negative margins during cancer surgery. Similar results were obtained with NADH activity staining, which measures Complex I activity, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity staining, which measures Complex II activity. COX and NADH activities were blocked by electron transport inhibitors, such as Metformin. This has mechanistic and clinical implications for using Metformin as an anti-cancer drug, both for cancer therapy and chemo-prevention. We also immuno-stained human breast cancers for a series of well-established protein biomarkers of metabolism. More specifically, we now show that cancer-associated fibroblasts over-express markers of autophagy (cathepsin B), mitophagy (BNIP3L), and aerobic glycolysis (MCT4). Conversely, epithelial cancer cells show the over-expression of a mitochondrial membrane marker (TOMM20), as well as key components of Complex IV (MT-CO1) and Complex II (SDH-B). We also validated our observations using a bioinformatics approach with data from > 2,000 breast cancer patients, which showed the transcriptional upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in human breast tumors (p < 10(-20)), and a specific association with metastasis. Therefore, upregulation of OXPHOS in epithelial tumor cells is a common feature of human breast cancers. In summary, our data provide the first functional in vivo evidence that epithelial cancer cells perform enhanced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, allowing them to produce high amounts of ATP. Thus, we believe that mitochondria are both the "powerhouse" and "Achilles' heel" of cancer cells.
    • Hypercalcemia and bone resorption in malignancy.

      Walls, J; Bundred, Nigel J; Howell, Anthony; Department of Surgery, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, England. (1995-03)
      Hypercalcemia is the most common paraneoplastic syndrome associated with cancer. This paper addresses the etiology and pathogenesis of hypercalcemia of malignancy and discusses the relative contributions of local and humoral effects on bone and renal calcium homeostasis. The roles of parathyroid hormone-related protein and other osteolytic cytokines are outlined. New biochemical markers that enable more specific monitoring of the response of bone metastases to treatment are introduced, including urinary excretion of the collagen crosslinks pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. The clinical management and prevention of hypercalcemia is systemically outlined, including indications for bisphosphonate, glucocorticoid, and calcitonin therapy. The results of recent trials of bisphosphonate therapy for the prevention of tumor progression and its subsequent problems such as bone pain, fracture, and hypercalcemia also are discussed.
    • Hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

      Haslett, Kate; Pöttgen, C; Stuschke, M; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Radiotherapy Related Research, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK (2014-04)
      Radical radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to the fact that many patients are medically or surgically inoperable. Advances in technology and radiotherapy delivery allow targeted treatment of the disease, whilst minimizing the dose to organs at risk. This in turn creates an opportunity for dose escalation and the prospect of tailoring radiotherapy treatment to each patient. This is especially important in patients deemed unsuitable for chemotherapy or surgery, where there is a need to increase the therapeutic gain from radical radiotherapy alone. Recent research into fractionation schedules, with hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy regimes has been promising. How to combine these new fractionated schedules with dose escalation and chemotherapy remains open to debate and there is local, national and international variation in management with a lack of overall consensus. An overview of the current literature on hyperfractionated and accelerated radiotherapy in NSCLC is provided.
    • Hyperleptinaemia in young adults following cranial irradiation in childhood: growth hormone deficiency or leptin insensitivity?

      Brennan, Bernadette M; Rahim, Asad; Blum, W F; Adams, J A; Eden, Tim O B; Shalet, Stephen M; Department of Paediatric Oncology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, UK. (1999-02)
      OBJECTIVE: In order to explore the mechanism of obesity in long-term survivors of childhood leukaemia, fat mass, lean body mass and serum leptin were assessed in a cohort of 32 (17 males) adults who had received cranial irradiation (XRT) in childhood as part of their treatment for acute lymphobiastic leukaemia (ALL), and compared with 35 age and body mass index (BMI) matched young adults (18 male). DESIGN: Thirty-one patients and 18 controls had fat mass and lean body mass assessed by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), using a lunar DPX-L scanner. Serum leptin concentrations were also measured in 27 patients and all controls. Growth hormone status had previously been determined using an insulin tolerance test and arginine stimulation test. Nine patients were classified as severe growth hormone (GH) deficient (group 1), 12 patients as GH insufficient (group 2) and 11 patients as normal (group 3). RESULTS: BMI and absolute fat mass were not significantly different between the patients and controls regardless of their gender (P = 0.1 and P = 0.14 respectively). In contrast, absolute lean mass was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and leptin concentrations were significantly increased (P < 0.001) in patients compared with controls. BMI, fat mass and leptin concentrations but not lean mass were significantly different between the three GH status groups (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P = 0.004, and P = 0.67 respectively). When leptin concentrations were expressed per unit of fat mass, they were increased in the patients compared with the controls (P = 0.03) with significant differences between the GH status groups (P = 0.004), being significantly higher in the severe GH deficient group. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults who receive cranial irradiation in childhood are prone to GH deficiency and hyperleptinaemia. The pathophysiological significance of the hyperleptinaemia remains to be established but it has occurred either as a consequence of radiation induced hypothalamic damage or GH deficiency.
    • Hypo-fractionation in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of the BC2001 and BCON trials

      Porta, N; Song, Yee Pei; Choudhury, Ananya; Owen, R; Lewis, R; Hussain, S; James, ND; Huddart, RA; Hoskin, Peter J; The Institute of Cancer Research, London (2019)
    • Hypodontia and ovarian cancer: a systematic review.

      Iavazzo, Christos; Papakiritsis, M; Gkegkes, I; J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc (2016)
      Hypodontia can be defined as the non-formation of one or more teeth during the developmental period. Mutation in several genes related to tooth formation has previously been correlated with cancer. Regarding the ovarian cancer, there are few studies that associate the presence of hypodontia with ovarian cancer. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Scopus. In total, 385 patients were included in this study. Control group was present in 3 out of 4 studies (340 patients). Hypodontia was present in 56 out of 290 patients (incidence of 19.3%). Only in 2 out of 4 studies, the number of missing teeth was mentioned (47 teeth), while the majority of them were either maxillary second premolars or maxillary lateral incisors. Unilateral distribution of the missing teeth was present in 28 out of 46 patients, while bilateral distribution of the missing teeth was present in 18 out of 46 patients. The presence of ovarian cancer in the family medical history occurred in 12 out of 33 patients. Only 1 out of 4 studies examined the presence of genes with mutations in the included patients. Based on our findings, the lack of clinical studies was the principal obstacle to clarify the possible predictive value of hypodontia in the early prediction of patients with higher risk of ovarian cancer.
    • Hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy in carcinoma of the prostate: five-year outcome analysis.

      Livsey, Jacqueline E; Cowan, Richard A; Wylie, James P; Swindell, Ric; Read, G; Khoo, Vincent S; Logue, John P; Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, England, United Kingdom. jaclivsey@hotmail.com (2003-12-01)
      PURPOSE: Recent publications have indicated that the alpha/beta ratios for carcinoma of the prostate are much lower than had originally been thought, suggesting that prostate cancer may be highly sensitive to fraction size. We have reviewed our unique experience of the use of 3.13 Gy fractions in a large cohort of men treated homogeneously in a single institute. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The outcome for 705 men with T1-T4, N0, M0 prostate cancer who received conformal radiotherapy between 1995 and 1998 at this center was analyzed. No patient received hormonal manipulation. Mean age was 68 years (range: 49-84 years). Median pretreatment PSA was 13 ng/mL (range: 0.6-270 ng/mL). Disease characteristics were as follows: Stage T1, 125 (18%); T2, 365 (52%); T3/4, 215 (30%); Gleason 2-6, 463 (66%); Gleason 7-10, 242 (34%); pretreatment PSA < or =10 ng/mL, 291 (41%); 10 to < or =20, 228 (32%); >20, 186 (27%). Median follow-up was 48 months (range: 1-82 months). Biochemical-free survival (bNED) was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (prostate plus all/base of the seminal vesicles dependent on risk criteria with a 1-cm margin) with a 4-field conformal technique to a dose of 50 Gy in 16 daily fractions over 22 days. RESULTS: The 5-year bNED survival was significantly associated (p < 0.001) with pretreatment PSA, stage, and Gleason score. Five-year bNED rates with respect to pretreatment characteristics were as follows: 73% (PSA < or =10), 52% (>10-20), 35% (>20), 64% (Stage T1/2), 38% (T3/4), 61% (Gleason score 2-6), and 46% (Gleason > or =7). When patients were grouped into good (Stage T1/2, PSA < or =10 ng/mL, and Gleason score <7) (n = 181), intermediate (1 raised value) (n = 247), or poor (2 or more raised values) (n = 277) prognostic groups, the bNED was, respectively, 82%, 56%, and 39%. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade > or =2 bowel toxicity was 5% and bladder 9%. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the delivery of a relatively low total dose using a hypofractionated regime results in similar tumor control and normal-tissue toxicity to 65-70 Gy delivered in 1.8-2 Gy fractions. These data suggest that this is an acceptable regime for good-prognosis patients. However, because of the evidence for a dose effect at doses above 70 Gy with "conventional fractionation," we are now treating intermediate- and poor-risk patients within a hypofractionated dose escalation trial to 60 Gy in 20 fractions using intensity- modulated radiotherapy.
    • Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Toxicity.

      Coote, Joanna H; Wylie, James P; Cowan, Richard A; Logue, John P; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E; Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom. (2009-01-06)
      PURPOSE: Dose escalation for prostate cancer improves biological control but with a significant increase in late toxicity. Recent estimates of low alpha/beta ratio for prostate cancer suggest that hypofractionation may result in biological advantage. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) should enable dose escalation to the prostate while reducing toxicity to local organs. We report late toxicity data of a hypofractionated IMRT regime. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible men had T2-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma prostate, and either Gleason score >/= 7 or prostate-specific antigen 20-50 ng/L. Patients received 57-60 Gy to prostate in 19-20 fractions using five-field IMRT. All received hormonal therapy for 3 months before radiotherapy to a maximum of 6 months. Toxicity was assessed 2 years postradiotherapy using the RTOG criteria, LENT/SOMA, and UCLA prostate index assessment tools. RESULTS: Acute toxicity was favorable with no RTOG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. At 2 years, there was 4% Grade 2 bowel and 4.25% Grade 2 bladder toxicity. There was no Grade 3 or 4 bowel toxicity; one patient developed Grade 3 bladder toxicity. UCLA data showed a slight improvement in urinary function at 2 years compared with pretreatment. LENT/SOMA assessments demonstrated general worsening of bowel function at 2 years. Patients receiving 60 Gy were more likely to develop problems with bowel function than those receiving 57 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT for prostate cancer is well tolerated with minimal late toxicity at 2 years posttreatment. Ongoing studies are looking at the efficacy of hypofractionated regimes with respect to biological control.
    • Hypofractionated radiotherapy as salvage for rising prostate-specific antigen after radical prostatectomy.

      Lee, Lip W; McBain, Catherine A; Swindell, Ric; Wylie, James P; Cowan, Richard A; Logue, John P; Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (2004-12)
      AIMS: To review the outcome of men receiving hypofractionated salvage radiotherapy for rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 61 men referred for salvage radiotherapy for biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy was conducted. Twenty-four men receiving hormonal therapy or with follow-up of less than 12 months were excluded. Thirty-seven men were identified, median age 64 years, median preoperative PSA 11 ng/ml (5.6-60 ng/ml), Gleason scores <7: 70%, Gleason scores > or = 7: 30%. Twenty-seven men had positive surgical resection margins, eight had seminal-vesicle involvement and one had lymph-node involvement. Diagnosis of failure after radical prostatectomy was made on rising PSA in all cases; 19 men also had positive magnetic resonance imaging, 11 abnormal digital rectal examination and nine positive biopsy. Radiotherapy was delivered conformally to the prostatic fossa, 50-52.5 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Date of failure after radiotherapy was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) consensus criteria or as date of commencement of hormonal therapy for rising PSA. RESULTS: Median time from radical prostatectomy to radiotherapy was 30.6 months (8-68 months); median pre-radiotherapy PSA was 2.9 ng/ml (0.5-11.4 ng/ml). PSA response after radiotherapy was seen in 33 out of 37 (89%) patients. At median follow-up of 36 months (20-85 months), 28 out of 37 remained disease-free. Thirteen more patients have had two consecutive PSA rises. Actuarial 3-year disease-free survival is 74%. No patient has developed metastases or died of prostate cancer. Pre-radiotherapy PSA less than 2 ng/ml predicted disease-free survival (P = 0.027). No acute toxicity greater than Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) G2 was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy achieved durable biochemical control in most patients. Outcome is improved if radiotherapy is delivered when PSA is less than 2 ng/ml. A policy of close monitoring after radical prostatectomy with early referral for salvage radiotherapy is advocated.
    • Hypofractionated radiotherapy in locally advanced bladder cancer: an individual patient data meta-analysis of the BC2001 and BCON trials

      Choudhury, Ananya; Porta, N.; Hall, E.; Song, Yee Pei; Owen, R.; Mackay, Ranald I; West, Catharine M L; Lewis, R.; Hussain, S. A.; James, N. D.; et al. (2021)
      Background: Two radiotherapy fractionation schedules are used to treat locally advanced bladder cancer: 64 Gy in 32 fractions over 6·5 weeks and a hypofractionated schedule of 55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks. Long-term outcomes of these schedules in several cohort studies and case series suggest that response, survival, and toxicity are similar, but no direct comparison has been published. The present study aimed to assess the non-inferiority of 55 Gy in 20 fractions to 64 Gy in 32 fractions in terms of invasive locoregional control and late toxicity in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. Methods: We did a meta-analysis of individual patient data from patients (age ≥18 years) with locally advanced bladder cancer (T1G3 [high-grade non-muscle invasive] or T2-T4, N0M0) enrolled in two multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trials done in the UK: BC2001 (NCT00024349; assessing addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy) and BCON (NCT00033436; assessing hypoxia-modifying therapy combined with radiotherapy). In each trial, the fractionation schedule was chosen according to local standard practice. Co-primary endpoints were invasive locoregional control (non-inferiority margin hazard ratio [HR]=1·25); and late bladder or rectum toxicity, assessed with the Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic tool (non-inferiority margin for absolute risk difference [RD]=10%). If non-inferiority was met for invasive locoregional control, superiority could be considered if the 95% CI for the treatment effect excluded the null effect (HR=1). One-stage individual patient data meta-analysis models for the time-to-event and binary outcomes were used, accounting for trial differences, within-centre correlation, randomised treatment received, baseline variable imbalances, and potential confounding from relevant prognostic factors. Findings: 782 patients with known fractionation schedules (456 from the BC2001 trial and 326 from the BCON trial; 376 (48%) received 64 Gy in 32 fractions and 406 (52%) received 55 Gy in 20 fractions) were included in our meta-analysis. Median follow-up was 120 months (IQR 99-159). Patients who received 55 Gy in 20 fractions had a lower risk of invasive locoregional recurrence than those who received 64 Gy in 32 fractions (adjusted HR 0·71 [95% CI 0·52-0·96]). Both schedules had similar toxicity profiles (adjusted RD -3·37% [95% CI -11·85 to 5·10]). Interpretation: A hypofractionated schedule of 55 Gy in 20 fractions is non-inferior to 64 Gy in 32 fractions with regard to both invasive locoregional control and toxicity, and is superior with regard to invasive locoregional control. 55 Gy in 20 fractions should be adopted as a standard of care for bladder preservation in patients with locally advanced bladder cancer.
    • Hypofractionated radiotherapy versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for patients with intermediate-risk localised prostate cancer: 2-year patient-reported outcomes of the randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 CHHiP trial.

      Wilkins, A; Mossop, H; Syndikus, I; Khoo, V; Bloomfield, D; Parker, C; Logue, John P; Scrase, C; Patterson, H; Birtle, A; et al. (2015-10-27)
      Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) might detect more toxic effects of radiotherapy than do clinician-reported outcomes. We did a quality of life (QoL) substudy to assess PROs up to 24 months after conventionally fractionated or hypofractionated radiotherapy in the Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer (CHHiP) trial.