• The expression of milk fat globule antigens within human mammary tumours: relationship to steroid hormone receptors and response to endocrine treatment.

      Baildam, Andrew D; Howell, Anthony; Barnes, Diana M; Turnbull, Lesley; Sellwood, R A; Department of Surgery, Christie Hospital, Manchester, U.K. (1989-03)
      The value of steroid hormone receptors for the management of advanced carcinoma of the breast is often limited by the lack of availability of fresh tissue. Differentiation antigens may be estimated on paraffin-embedded fixed material by immunostaining, and the aim of this study was to determine whether staining with the monoclonal antibody raised to human milk fat globule (HMFG-1) could replace receptor measurements. The indirect immunoperoxidase technique was used to stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour samples from 168 patients. All received tamoxifen or ovarian ablation as first-line systemic therapy, and all were evaluable for response (UICC criteria). One hundred and sixty-seven had oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) estimated. HMFG-1 staining was assessed as the percentage of tumour cells stained, and by the site of stain. The proportion of cells stained was highly correlated with both ER (P less than 0.0001) and PR (P less than 0.0001) and with response. When greater than or equal to 30% cells stained, 53 of 69 (77%) responded; when 20-29% stained 10 of 19 (53%) responded, when 10-19% stained seven of 19 (37%) responded, and when less than or equal to 9% cells stained 16 of 61 (26%) responded (P less than 0.0001). The median survival of patients with tumours that stained greater than or equal to 30% cells was 36 months, and with no cells stained, 11 months (P less than 0.0001). ROC (receiver operator characteristic) curves found that the optimum threshold for sensitivity and specificity of response prediction was greater than or equal to 20% cells stained. Cox's multiple regression analysis of 42 variables indicated that PR was the most important predictor of survival (P less than 0.000001), but that after PR the percentage of cells stained with HMFG-1 was the most important (P less than 0.0001). We conclude that immunostaining for HMFG-1 gives similar information to receptor status, and has the advantage that fixed archival tissue may be used.
    • Expression of miR-210 in relation to other measures of hypoxia and prediction of benefit from hypoxia modification in patients with bladder cancer.

      Irlam-Jones, Joely J; Eustace, Amanda; Denley, H; Choudhury, Ananya; Harris, A; Hoskin, P; West, Catharine M L; Translational Radiobiology Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Centre, Manchester M20 4BX (2016-07-21)
      The addition of hypoxia modifiers carbogen and nicotinamide (CON) to radiotherapy (RT) improved overall survival (OS) in bladder cancer patients in the BCON phase III clinical trial. We investigate whether expression of hsa-miR-210 in BCON patient samples reflects hypoxia and predicts benefit from hypoxia modification.
    • Expression of Notch 3 and Jagged 1 is associated with merkel cell polyomavirus status and prognosis in merkel cell carcinoma

      Wardhani, LO; Matsushita, M; Kuwamoto, S; Nonaka, Daisuke; Nagata, K; Kato, M; Kitamura, Y; Hayashi, K; Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Japan (2019)
      AIM: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, neuroendocrine skin cancer and most MCCs are related to infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Notch signaling modulates cell fate in various tissues including the skin during development and homeostasis, and its aberrant activity relates to onset and progression of various malignancies. Therefore, association of NOTCH1/ NOTCH2/NOTCH3/jagged 1 (JAG1) expression with MCPyV status and prognosis in MCC was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 MCPyV-positive and 19 MCPyV-negative MCC samples from patients were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against NOTCH1, NOTCH2, NOTCH3, and JAG1 and analyzed. RESULTS: Expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 was not associated with MCPyV status or prognosis. However, higher JAG1 expression was found in MCPyV-negative than in MCPyV-positive MCC (p<0.001), and NOTCH3 expression was higher in MCPyV-positive MCC (p=0.062). Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses showed that patients with MCC with higher NOTCH3 expression had better overall survival than otherwise (p=0.001 and p=0.033, respectively). CONCLUSION: Expression of NOTCH3, as a tumor suppressor, is an independent predictor of MCC outcome.
    • The expression of Notch signalling pathway in Merkel cell carcinoma

      Matsushita, M; Wardhani, LO; Iwasaki, T; Kuwamoto, S; Nonaka, Daisuke; Nagata, K; Kato, M; Kitamura, Y; Hayashi, K; Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Japan, (2019)
    • Expression of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase in situ in ovarian and Hodgkin's tumours.

      Lee, Siow Ming; Harris, Martin; Rennison, John; McGown, Alan T; Bromley, Michael; Elder, Rhoderick H; Rafferty, Joseph A; Crowther, Derek; Margison, Geoffrey P; CRC Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital (NHS) Trust, Manchester, U.K. (1993)
      The cellular expression of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase (ATase) may be an important factor in determining tumour sensitivity to certain alkylating agents. In a comparative study, we have examined the inter- and intracellular distribution of ATase in tumour biopsies of a series of patients with Hodgkin's disease and ovarian cancer using a rabbit antihuman ATase antiserum. The antibody recognises the ATase protein on western blots of cell-free extracts of a number of ovarian tumours with ATase activities varying from 20 to 420 fmol/mg protein as determined by in vitro assay and there was a linear correlation between ATase activity and the intensity of the band on western blots (r = 0.993). Immunohistochemical staining was seen in all of the ovarian tumours examined and was confined to the nucleus. This is in contrast to the Hodgkin's tissue, where staining was much reduced and present in both nuclei and cytoplasm. The results suggest that in ovarian tumours the general resistance to nitrosourea chemotherapy may be related to the high cellular expression of ATase protein: this is in contrast to the more chemosensitive Hodgkin's disease. This raises the possibility that it might be feasible to predict sensitivity or resistance to these alkylating agents by immunohistochemical staining of tumour or tissue specimens.
    • Expression of p16INK4a/p16alpha and p19ARF/p16beta is frequently altered in non-small cell lung cancer and correlates with p53 overexpression.

      Vonlanthen, S; Heighway, Jim; Tschan, M P; Borner, M M; Altermatt, H J; Kappeler, A; Tobler, A; Fey, M F; Thatcher, Nick; Yarbrough, W G; et al. (1998-11-26)
      The CDKN2 locus expresses two different mRNA transcripts, designated alpha and beta. The protein product of the alpha transcript is the cell cycle inhibitor and tumour suppressor p16INK4a. The beta transcript is translated in an alternate reading frame (ARF) and in humans encodes a 15 kDa protein (p19ARF). Immunohistochemical and Western analysis of p16INK4a has shown that the protein is downregulated in a significant number of tumours, but less is known on the expression of the p19ARF. We have examined the expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by immunostaining (n=49) and multiplex RT-PCR (n=28). In order to investigate the mechanism responsible for p16INK4a downregulation, exon 1alpha methylation was analysed in a PCR-based assay. Of 49 tumours examined by immunostaining, 24 and 20 tumours expressed p16INK4a and p19ARF at nil to low levels, respectively. p19ARF was localized primarily to the nuclei of tumour cells, but was also seen to varying degrees in nuclei of lymphocytes, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells. No tumour with normal p16INK4a had decreased p19ARF expression. Among 16 tumours with nil to low p16INK4a expression, 11 tumours exhibited full methylation of at least one site within exon 1alpha and these tumours showed normal p19ARF expression. In contrast, no methylation of exon 1alpha was observed in five tumours which also lacked p19ARF. In normal lung, p16INK4a and p19ARF were not expressed at detectable levels, the multiplex RT-PCR results were balanced, and sites within exon 1alpha were strongly methylated. In tumours, imbalanced multiplex RT-PCR data (p16INK4a
    • Expression of PD-L1 on routine non-small cell lung carcinoma sections: comparative assessment of SP263 (Ventana) and 22C3 (DAKO pharmDx)

      Quinn, AM; Gosney, J; Bishop, P; Bloor, R; Harreld, C; Mcnulty, C; Bowden, R; Moss, A; Forrest, S; Montero, A; et al. (2018)
    • Expression of signaling molecules associated with apoptosis in human ischemic stroke tissue.

      Mitsios, Nick; Gaffney, John; Krupinski, Jerzy; Mathias, Richard; Wang, Qiuyu; Hayward, Stuart; Rubio, Francisco; Kumar, Patricia; Kumar, Shant; Slevin, Mark; et al. (2007)
      There is growing evidence that, because of the highly significant differences in gene activation/protein expression between animal models of stroke and stroke patients, the current treatment strategies based on animal stroke models have been unsuccessful. Therefore, it is imperative that the pathobiology of human stroke be studied. As a first step here, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were employed to examine expression and tissue localization of key apoptotic proteins in infarct and peri-infarcted (penumbra) from grey and white matter in human postmortem tissue of 18 patients who died between 2 and 37 d after stroke caused by large vessel disease. The contralateral hemisphere was used as a control. JNK1, JNK2, and p53 were upregulated in the majority of samples, whereas Bcl-2, caspase-3, active caspase-3, phosphorylated p53 (p-p53), phosphorylated JNK1 (p-JNK1), and phosphorylated JNK2 (p-JNK2) were upregulated in approximately half of the samples. JNK1 expression was positively correlated with JNK2 expression in grey and white matter infarct and penumbra, whereas active caspase-3 levels were positively correlated with p-JNK2 levels in grey and white matter infarct. Using indirect immunoperoxidase staining of paraffin-embedded sections, active caspase-3 was found in infarcted neurons that co-localized with TUNEL-positive cells. p-JNK localization in the nuclei of TUNELpositive cells with the morphological appearance of neurons from infarct and penumbra was also demonstrated. The use of Kaplan Meier survival data demonstrated that the presence of Bcl-2 in penumbra of grey matter correlated significantly with shorter survival (p = 0.006). In conclusion, the present study has identified significantly altered expression of apoptotic proteins in human stroke tissue and shown that the presence of Bcl-2 in penumbra of grey matter has prognostic value. It is tempting to suggest that further studies of apoptotic proteins in human stroke may lead to identification of novel targets for drug discovery.
    • Expression of the 5T4 oncofoetal antigen in renal cell carcinoma: a potential target for T-cell-based immunotherapy.

      Griffiths, Richard W; Gilham, David E; Dangoor, Adam; Ramani, Vijay A C; Clarke, Noel W; Stern, Peter L; Hawkins, Robert E; Department of Medical Oncology, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Christie Research Centre, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2005-09-19)
      The 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is a heavily glycosylated cell surface protein found on human placental trophoblast and on diverse types of human cancer but is not expressed at significant levels on adult human tissues in health. It therefore satisfies the criteria for a tumour-associated antigen and is an ideal target for the immunotherapy of cancer. We report here that 5T4 is strongly expressed on the majority of renal cell carcinomas and therefore this population of patients is suitable for trials of 5T4-targeted therapies. In particular, we have shown that T cells from renal cell carcinoma patients can be genetically modified to kill 5T4 expressing renal cancer cell lines by introduction of a chimeric-signalling protein. This protein consists of a single chain antibody fragment capable of binding antigen directly at the cell surface and then activating the T cell by virtue of a CD3zeta-signalling domain. This is a powerful tool that bypasses a number of mechanisms that allow tumours to escape T-cell killing and can be readily scaled up for clinical use.
    • Expression of the IDO1/TDO2-AhR pathway in tumor cells or the tumor microenvironment is associated with MCPyV status and prognosis in Merkel cell carcinoma.

      Wardhani, L; Matsushita, M; Iwasaki, T; Kuwamoto, S; Nonaka, Daisuke; Nagata, K; Kato, M; Kitamura, Y; Hayashi, K; Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, 683-8503, Japan (2018-09-18)
      Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer, with approximately 80% of cases related to Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO2) are the key rate-limiting enzymes of the tryptophan to kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway. With aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an intracellular transcription factor, they play a role in escaping the immunosurveillance process in several cancers. IDO1/TDO2/AhR expression associated with the MCPyV status and prognosis in MCC was investigated. Samples included 24 MCPyV-positive MCCs, 12 MCPyV-negative MCCs with squamous cell carcinoma, and seven MCPyV-negative pure MCCs. They were stained immunohistochemically with IDO1, TDO2, and AhR antibodies and analyzed. Higher IDO1 expression in MCC tumor cells was found in MCPyV-negative than in MCPyV-positive MCC (P < .001). The tumor microenvironment (TME) in MCPyV-negative MCC expressed higher TDO2 than MCPyV-positive MCC (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests showed that MCC with lower IDO1 expression in tumor cells and with lower TDO2 and AhR expressions in TME had better overall survival than otherwise (P = .043, .008, and .035, respectively); lower TDO2 expression in TME was also associated with longer disease-specific survival (P = .016). This suggests that IDO1, TDO2, and AhR express differentially in tumor cells or TME and play different roles in tumorigenesis between MCPyV-positive and -negative MCC that may affect the MCC biology. Evaluating IDO1/TDO2/AhR expression is important for selecting the most likely patients with MCC for immunotherapies targeting the IDO1/TDO2-AhR pathway.
    • Expression of the proapoptotic protein Bid is an adverse prognostic factor for radiotherapy outcome in carcinoma of the cervix.

      Green, M M L; Hutchison, G J; Valentine, Helen R; Fitzmaurice, R J; Davidson, Susan E; Hunter, Robin D; Dive, Caroline; West, Catharine M L; Stratford, Ian J; Experimental Oncology Group, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Coupland III, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. (2005-02-14)
      The Bcl-2 family of apoptotic regulators is thought to play an essential role in cancer development and influence the sensitivity of tumour cells to radiotherapy. Bid is an abundantly expressed Bcl-2 family protein playing a central role in various pathways of apoptosis by integrating and converging signals at the mitochondria. The relevance of apoptotic modulation by Bcl-2 and related proteins in tumour development and radiation response for human tumours remains undefined. Therefore, a study was made regarding the expression of Bid in patients with locally advanced cervix carcinoma who received radiotherapy. Bid expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in pretreatment archival biopsies from 98 patients. The data were correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment outcome. Pretreatment tumour radiosensitivity data were available for 60 patients. Strong Bid expression was associated with a patient age less than the median of 52 years (P=0.034) and poor metastasis-free survival. In multivariate analysis, after allowing for stage, Bid expression was a significant prognostic factor for both disease-specific and metastasis-free survival (P=0.026). It is concluded that strong tumour Bid expression is associated with poor outcome following radiotherapy regardless of intrinsic tumour cell radiosensitivity, and is adverse prognostic for disease-specific and metastasis-free survival in younger patients.
    • Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in locally invasive prostate cancer is prognostic for radiotherapy outcome.

      Green, Melanie M; Hiley, Crispin T; Shanks, Jonathan H; Bottomley, Ian C; West, Catharine M L; Cowan, Richard A; Stratford, Ian J; Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Coupland III, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK. (2007-01-01)
      PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important hypoxia-inducible pro-angiogenic protein that has been linked with an adverse survival outcome after radiotherapy in other cancer types: we hypothesized that this may also occur in prostate cancer. A retrospective study was, therefore, carried out to evaluate the potential of tumor VEGF expression to predict radiotherapy outcome in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifty patients with locally advanced (T3 N0 M0) tumors of Gleason score > or =6, and who received radiotherapy alone as primary treatment for their disease, were studied. Vascular endothelial growth factor expression was assessed on pretreatment diagnostic tumor biopsies using a semiquantitative immunohistochemical scoring system. The results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic factors and patient outcome including biochemical failure and disease-specific mortality. RESULTS: High VEGF expression was associated with a poor prognosis: in univariate log rank analysis, VEGF was the only significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (p = 0.035). High VEGF expression also associated with increased Gleason score (p = 0.02), but not posttreatment biochemical failure. CONCLUSION: High tumor expression of VEGF identified patients at high risk of failure of treatment with radiotherapy. These patients might benefit from additional treatment approaches incorporating anti-angiogenic or hypoxia-specific agents.
    • Extended gene panel testing in lobular breast cancer

      van Veen, E. M.; Evans, D Gareth R; Harkness, E. F.; Byers, H. J.; Ellingford, J. M.; Woodward, E. R.; Bowers, N. L.; Wallace, A. J.; Howell, Sacha J; Howell, Anthony; et al. (2021)
      Purpose: Lobular breast cancer (LBC) accounts for ~ 15% of breast cancer. Here, we studied the frequency of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) in an extended panel of genes in women affected with LBC. Methods: 302 women with LBC and 1567 without breast cancer were tested for BRCA1/2 PGVs. A subset of 134 LBC affected women who tested negative for BRCA1/2 PGVs underwent extended screening, including: ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51D, and TP53. Results: 35 PGVs were identified in the group with LBC, of which 22 were in BRCA1/2. Ten actionable PGVs were identified in additional genes (ATM(4), CDH1(1), CHEK2(1), PALB2(2) and TP53(2)). Overall, PGVs in three genes conferred a significant increased risk for LBC. Odds ratios (ORs) were: BRCA1: OR = 13.17 (95%CI 2.83-66.38; P = 0.0017), BRCA2: OR = 10.33 (95%CI 4.58-23.95; P < 0.0001); and ATM: OR = 8.01 (95%CI 2.52-29.92; P = 0.0053). We did not detect an increased risk of LBC for PALB2, CDH1 or CHEK2. Conclusion: The overall PGV detection rate was 11.59%, with similar rates of BRCA1/2 (7.28%) PGVs as for other actionable PGVs (7.46%), indicating a benefit for extended panel genetic testing in LBC. We also report a previously unrecognised association of pathogenic variants in ATM with LBC.
    • Extended independent nurse prescribing in palliative care.

      Mula, Carole; Ware, Sue; Christie Hospital NHS Trust/North Manchester Primary Care Trust. (2003-05)
      Extended nurse prescribing is now a reality and its particular application to specialist palliative care nurses will allow them to formalize their practice of advising doctors on medication régimes and to work more autonomously. An education programme in a validated university is now operating for nurses who wish to become extended formulary nurse prescribers. Extended nurse prescribing for palliative care nurses in the community will be a particular challenge because of the large geographical areas covered, which could make communication with primary care team members difficult. If patients are to receive holistic, seamless care, palliative care nurses need to lobby for an improved, workable formulary.
    • Extended role for needle biopsy in the management of carcinoma of the breast.

      Baildam, Andrew D; Turnbull, L W; Howell, Anthony; Barnes, Diana M; Sellwood, R A; Department of Surgery, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (1989-06)
      Treatment choice in primary breast cancer is wide and still controversial; it seems likely that the optimum treatment for individual patients could be dictated by biological indicators of tumour behaviour. If biopsy could provide prognostic information as well as detailed tissue diagnosis then definitive treatment, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy, could be planned from the outset. We studied 140 patients with a clinical diagnosis of primary breast cancer to determine how much information could be obtained from Tru-Cut needle biopsies performed at the first clinic visit. Ten patients were found to have benign disease. Of 130 carcinomas, 123 (95 per cent sensitivity) were diagnosed correctly from the needle biopsies, with seven false negative and no false positive results (100 per cent specificity). Precise histopathology was predicted in 121 (93 per cent). Grade was correctly assessed in 77 of 112 (69 per cent), but needle biopsy was not accurate for assessment of lymphatic invasion nor elastosis. Steroid hormone receptors were assayed in 59 needle biopsies, and the incidence of oestrogen receptor positivity (34, 58 per cent) was similar to the resected tumours (35, 59 per cent), but the incidence of progesterone receptor positivity (26, 44 per cent) was lower (33, 56 per cent, P less than 0.04). Immunostaining with monoclonal antibody human milk fat globule membrane was accurate in the needle biopsies. DNA analysis by flow cytometry was performed in 37 tumours and the concordance between needle biopsies and resected samples was high. Tru-Cut needle biopsy obviates open biopsy and gives reliable detailed information.
    • Extensive expertise in endocrinology: UK stance on adult GH replacement: the economist vs the endocrinologist.

      Shalet, Stephen M; Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2013-10)
      In the UK, through the use of a forced economic model, endocrinologists are in the curious position of offering GH replacement to some patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) but withholding it from other patients with even more severe GHD. This approach is counter-intuitive to endocrine practice in treating endocrine deficiency states. For all other endocrine deficiencies, one would opt for treating those with the most severe biochemical evidence of deficiency first. If this endocrine approach was applied to adult GH replacement in an era of rationing, one would start with the GHD patients with a pathologically low IGF1 level. Given that the prevalence of subnormal IGF1 levels in a GHD population is age-dependent, this would result in GH replacement being offered to more young adult onset (AO) GHD and childhood onset GHD adults, and less often to middle-aged and elderly AO GHD adults. This in itself has the added advantage that the skeletal benefits appear more real in the former cohort of patients.
    • Extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer--moving beyond response rate?

      Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Lorigan, Paul C (2009-05)
    • External beam (EBRT) and HDR brachytherapy (BT) in prostate cancer: impact of EBRT volume.

      Tharmalingam, H; Tsang, Y; Choudhury, Ananya; Hoskin, P; Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Oncology, London (2018)
    • External beam boost for cancer of the cervix uteri when intracavitary therapy cannot be performed.

      Barraclough, Lisa H; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E; Hunter, Robin D; Davidson, Susan E; Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. lisahelenbone@hotmail.com (2008-07-01)
      PURPOSE: To assess the outcome of patients treated with radical radiotherapy for cervical cancer who received an external beam boost, in place of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT), after irradiation to the whole pelvis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Case notes were reviewed for all patients treated in this way in a single center between 1996 and 2004. Patient and tumor details, the reasons why ICT was not possible, and treatment outcome were documented. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were identified. The mean age was 56.4 years (range, 26-88 years). Clinical International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics or radiologic stage for Stages I, II, III, and IV, respectively, was 16%, 48%, 27%, and 7%. A total radiation dose of 54-70 Gy was given (75% received > or =60 Gy). Reasons for ICT not being performed were technical limitations in 73%, comorbidity or isolation limitations in 23%, and patient choice in 4%. The median follow-up was 2.3 years. Recurrent disease was seen in 48%, with a median time to recurrence of 2.3 years. Central recurrence was seen in 16 of the 21 patients with recurrent disease. The 5-year overall survival rate was 49.3%. The 3-year cancer-specific survival rate by stage was 100%, 70%, and 42% for Stages I, II, and III, respectively. Late Grades 1 and 2 bowel, bladder, and vaginal toxicity were seen in 41%. Late Grade 3 toxicity was seen in 2%. CONCLUSION: An external beam boost is a reasonable option after external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis when it is not possible to perform ICT.
    • External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer: the impact of EBRT volume

      Tharmalingam, H; Tsang, Y; Choudhury, Ananya; Alonzi, R; Wylie, James P; Ahmed, I; Henry, A; Heath, C; Hoskin, PJ; Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood, UK (2019)