• Gap analysis of role definition and training needs for therapeutic research radiographers in the UK.

      Russell, Wanda; McNair, Helen A; Heaton, Angela; Ball, Kim; Routsis, Donna; Love, Kate; Miles, Elizabeth; Academic Clinical Oncology and Radiobiology Research Network (ACORRN), Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. (2007-09)
      In this study, we aimed to create a comprehensive register of UK research radiographers (RRs), identify perceived training needs and make recommendations for the forward planning of the RR community in 2007 and 2008. Radiotherapy departments in England were sent an Academic Clinical Oncology and Radiobiology Research Network (ACORRN) questionnaire on RR establishment, demographics, role descriptions, research responsibilities, funding, time allocations, research skills and barriers to research. ACORRN received 85 replies from 51 departments of which just 5 RRs had a 100% research role. 70 radiographers participated in research at some level. 13 departments did not have any RRs. The RR role was defined as both developmental and specialist in nature by 43% of respondents; the remainder had a more diverse role. The National Health Service Trusts were responsible for funding 40% of RRs; the rest were fully or part-funded by national or local cancer networks, charity appeals and industry. 61% of RRs did not have dedicated academic time despite 93% being required to teach or support others. Critical barriers reported in conducting research were time, funding and supporting others In conclusion, the ACORRN RR Working Party makes the following recommendations for the future development of the community: the role of research should be viewed as an integral feature, at least one RR should be employed per radiotherapy department, the RR community must work together, dedicated research time is required, along with stable funding, RRs require more training, RRs need more support to accomplish the diversity of roles.
    • Helping cancer patients disclose their concerns.

      Maguire, Peter; Faulkner, A; Booth, K; Elliott, C; Hillier, V; Cancer Research Campaign Psychological Medicine Group, Christie Hospital, Manchester, U.K. (1996-01)
      Health professionals are reluctant to enquire actively about cancer patients' concerns and feelings. They fear that probing will damage patients psychologically and believe they have had insufficient training in the relevant interviewing skills. In considering how their interviewing skills might be improved, the key question is which interviewing behaviours promote patient disclosure and which inhibit it. To test our predictions about the utility of specific interviewing behaviours, we asked 206 health professionals, who were attending workshops on communication and counselling skills, to interview a simulated patient before and after the workshop to establish the patient's current problems. They were given 20 min to do this and the interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed to permit detailed assessment by trained raters using an utterance by utterance analysis. This permitted the form, function, content and emotional level of each utterance to be rated. Correlation coefficients were calculated between specific interviewing behaviours and patient disclosure of significant information. Significant information was defined as any information disclosed by patients about their perceptions of their illness or prognosis or any adverse physical, psychological or social sequelae of their cancer and treatment. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between specific interviewing behaviours and patient disclosure. The use of these behaviours by those 41 (20%) of interviewers who achieved most disclosure was compared with those 41 (20%) who obtained least disclosure. Patient disclosure of significant information was promoted by the use of open directive questions, focusing on and clarifying psychological aspects, empathic statements, summarising and making educated guesses. The use of leading questions, focusing on and clarifying physical aspects, moving into advice and reassurance mode inhibited patient disclosure. Inhibitory behaviours were used 2-3 times more frequently before training than facilitative ones. Training of health professionals involved in cancer care should, therefore, ensure they acquire these positive skills and relinquish the inhibitory behaviours.
    • Improving the psychological care of cancer patients and their relatives. The role of specialist nurses.

      Maguire, Peter; Pitceathly, Carolyn; CRUK Psychological Medicine Group, Stanley House, Christie Hospital, M20 4BX Manchester, UK. (2003-11)
    • Using a training needs analysis framework in career development.

      Pennington, Hazel; Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester. (2011-05)
      This is the second of two articles looking at the use of training needs analysis frameworks to streamline the provision of continuing professional development (CPD) in healthcare settings. The first article described the process and academic strategy used to design the framework. Part two describes how one department has used the tool to identify and address staff training and CPD needs, and how this has helped meet individual, departmental and organisational objectives.