• Allergy and risk of childhood leukaemia: results from the UKCCS.

      Hughes, Ann M; Lightfoot, Tracy; Simpson, Jill; Ansell, Pat; McKinney, Patricia A; Kinsey, Sally E; Mitchell, Christopher D; Eden, Tim O B; Greaves, Mel F; Roman, Eve; et al. (2007-08-15)
      We investigated the relationship between childhood leukaemia and preceding history of allergy. A nationwide case-control study of childhood cancers was conducted in the United Kingdom with population-based sampling of cases (n = 839) and controls (n = 1,337), matched on age, sex and region of residence. Information about clinically diagnosed allergies was obtained from primary care records. More than a third of subjects had at least one allergy diagnosed prior to leukaemia diagnosis (cases) or pseudo-diagnosis (controls). For both total acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and common-ALL/precursor B-cell ALL (c-ALL), a history of eczema was associated with a 30% significant reduction in risk: the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 0.70 (0.51-0.97) and 0.68 (0.48-0.98), respectively. Similar associations were observed for hayfever (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.26-0.85 and OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.33-1.16 for ALL and c-ALL, respectively). No such patterns were seen either for asthma and ALL, or for any allergy and acute myeloid leukaemia. A comparative analysis of primary care records with parents recall of allergy revealed only moderate agreement with contemporaneous clinical diagnoses for both cases and controls--confirming the unreliability of parental report at interview. Our finding of a reciprocal relationship between allergy and ALL in children is compatible with the hypothesis that a dysregulated immune response is a critical determinant of childhood ALL.
    • Twelve cases of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma of skin.

      Banerjee, Saumitra S; Heald, J; Harris, Martin; Department of Histopathology, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester. (1991-02)
      In seven of 12 cases of Ber-H2 (Ki-1) positive anaplastic large cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Ki-1 ALCL) disease remained localised to skin, and in five there was extracutaneous spread. Four patients had histological evidence of pre-existing or coexisting mycosis fungoides, and three patients had a long standing history of eczema or ichthyosis. In two cases the presence of a T phenotype was shown in frozen sections, and in a further six cases a T phenotype was firmly established in paraffin wax sections. Four patients died less than one year after presentation (two with disseminated lymphoma; two from other causes); one died at five years with widespread lymphoma and the remaining seven cases were alive one to 14 1/2 years after presentation. Three of the four patients with associated mycosis fungoides had prolonged survival, contrary to the findings of previous reports which suggest secondary Ki-1 ALCL behaves aggressively. The recognition of these tumours is important because of their relatively good prognosis. The diagnosis can be readily substantiated immunohistochemically, using a simple panel of antibodies.