• A comparison of the effects of pegvisomant and octreotide on glucose, insulin, gastrin, cholecystokinin, and pancreatic polypeptide responses to oral glucose and a standard mixed meal.

      Parkinson, Craig; Drake, William M; Roberts, Margaret E; Meeran, K; Besser, G M; Trainer, Peter J; Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom. (2002-04)
      Standard medical therapy for patients with acromegaly includes somatostatin analogs. Owing to the widespread expression of somatostatin receptors, these may be associated with unwanted effects, such as altered glucose tolerance and impaired gut hormone release. Pegvisomant is a novel pegylated GH analog that competes with wild-type GH for GH-receptor binding sites but contains a position 120, amino acid substitution that prevents functional GH receptor dimerization, a known prerequisite for GH signal transduction and generation of IGF-I. We have studied the short-term effects of these two therapies (pegvisomant 20 mg/d for 7 d and octreotide 50 microg thrice daily for 7 d) on glucose tolerance and stimulated gut hormone release in six healthy male volunteers in an open-label, random-order, cross-over study. Subjects were assessed at baseline (oral glucose tolerance test and standard mixed meal) and on d 6 and 7 of each therapy with a minimum washout of 2 wk between treatments. Area under the curve and peak responses were analyzed using one-way repeated-measures ANOVA (on ranks where appropriate). Pegvisomant had no effect on glucose tolerance or stimulated gut hormone response during an oral glucose tolerance test and a standard meal. In contrast, octreotide significantly increased fasting plasma glucose, lowered fasting plasma insulin, and led to deterioration in glucose tolerance; three subjects developed impaired glucose tolerance and one diabetes mellitus by World Health Organization criteria. Octreotide significantly impaired stimulated release of cholecystokinin, gastrin, insulin, and pancreatic polypeptide. In conclusion, pegvisomant, unlike octreotide, is not associated with deterioration in glucose tolerance and impairment of stimulated gut hormone release in normal males.
    • The impact of short-term fasting on the dynamics of 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion in patients with severe radiation-induced GH deficiency.

      Darzy, Ken H; Murray, Robert D; Gleeson, Helena K; Pezzoli, Suzan S; Thorner, Michael O; Shalet, Stephen M; Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital, Wilmslow Road, Manchester M20 4BX, United Kingdom. stephen.m.shalet@man.ac.uk. (2006-03)
      CONTEXT: In patients with severe radiation-induced GH deficiency, we previously demonstrated that pulsatile GH secretion and diurnal rhythm are maintained in the fed state, albeit with great attenuation of the pulse amplitude. However, it remained unclear whether stressing the hypothalamic-pituitary axis could unmask neurosecretory dysregulation that is not seen under basal conditions. In addition, the impact of fasting on GH pulsatility and diurnal variation in GH-deficient patients has not been studied in detail before. STUDY SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Twenty-four-hour GH profiles at 20-min intervals were undertaken in the fed state and in the last 24 h of a 33-h fast in eight young adult cancer survivors (two women) with severe GH deficiency after cranial irradiation for nonpituitary brain tumors in childhood and 14 matched normal controls (three women). A sensitive chemiluminescence GH assay was used with cluster analysis. RESULTS: Fasting induced a significant (P < 0.05) rise in all amplitude-dependent measures (absolute GH peak and nadir, profile mean GH, and mean pulse amplitude and area) in both groups. Pulse frequency was nonsignificantly increased (by 10%) in normals but significantly increased (by 20%) in the patients. The average increase in the individual fasting profile mean GH concentration was 3.7-fold (range 1.5-8.3) in normals, compared with 2.7-fold (range 1-4.7) in the patients (P > 0.05). Fasting amplified amplitude-related differences between patients and controls, and thus, unlike in the fed state, the day (0900-2040 h) mean GH completely demarcated patients from normals. An absolute GH peak level of 2 and 4 microg/liter and a profile mean GH level of 0.25 and 0.65 microg/liter completely separated patients from normals in the fed and the fasting states, respectively. Overall, fasting seems to induce a feminized pattern of GH secretion with relatively higher interpeak levels, preserved but diminished diurnal variation, and increased secretory disorderliness (increased approximate entropy scores). CONCLUSION: The overall pulsatile pattern of GH secretion during fasting in patients with radiation-induced GH deficiency and the relative augmentation in GH release are similar to that seen in normals emphasizing that GH neuroregulation is preserved in these patients even when the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is under physiological stress.