• Serum levels of the TGF-beta receptor are increased in atherosclerosis.

      Blann, A D; Wang, Ji Min; Wilson, P B; Kumar, Shant; Department of Surgery, University Hospital of South Manchester, Nell Lane, Didsbury, Manchester M20 8LR, UK. (1996-02)
      Murine monoclonal antibody E9 recognises a transforming growth factor (TGF) beta receptor, which is expressed in increased amounts by activated endothelial cells. In order to examine the biological role of this molecule in atherosclerosis, we have measured levels of the TGF-beta receptor alongside those of two other endothelial cell products (von Willebrand factor and soluble E-selectin) in the serum of 55 patients with atherosclerosis (29 with ischaemic heart disease and 26 with peripheral vascular disease), and in a cohort of 26 age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls. There were increased levels of the TGF-beta receptor (P = 0.0079) and von Willebrand factor (P = 0.0001), but not soluble E-selection in patients' serum relative to the controls. In multivariate analysis of the endothelial cell products against total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, age, sex and smoking, both the TGF-beta receptor and von Willebrand factor correlated with total cholesterol (Spearman's r = 0.37 and r = 0.35, respectively, both P < 0.001). Lack of a correlation with a coarse endothelial damage marker von Willebrand factor or soluble E-selectin (produced by immunologically stimulated endothelial cells) implies other mechanisms are responsible for increased levels of the TGF-beta receptor in serum of patients with atherosclerosis.
    • Serum soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1: role as a surrogate marker of angiogenesis.

      Byrne, Ged J; Ghellal, Ashur; Iddon, Julie; Blann, A D; Venizelos, Vasil; Kumar, Shant; Howell, Anthony; Bundred, Nigel J; Department of Academic Surgery, University Hospital of South Manchester, U.K. (2000-08-16)
      BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, is a prerequisite for tumor growth and metastasis. Surrogate markers for angiogenesis would be useful for studying the effectiveness of antiangiogenesis drugs. We examined the potential of three serum glycoproteins-vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial selectin (E-selectin), and von Willebrand factor (VWF)-to serve as markers for angiogenesis. METHODS: Preoperative serum levels of VCAM-1, E-selectin, and VWF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 93 women with early breast cancer and were compared with microvessel density in each tumor, histologic features, and recurrence after surgery. Serum samples were taken from 55 women with advanced breast cancer who were commencing hormonal therapy, both immediately before therapy and 3 months later. Changes in serum levels of VCAM-1, E-selectin, and VWF were compared with the response of the disease to hormonal therapy assessed 6 months after the start of hormone therapy or at disease progression. All P: values are two-sided. RESULTS: In women with early breast cancer, serum levels of VCAM-1 (but not of E-selectin or VWF) correlated closely with microvessel density in tumors (r =.65; P:<.001), and women who developed early recurrence had higher preoperative levels of serum VCAM-1 than those who remained disease free (P: =.01). Serum VCAM-1 levels rose in women with advanced breast cancer whose disease progressed (P:<.001) but remained unchanged or fell in women with advanced breast cancer whose disease remained stable or showed a partial response to hormonal therapy. CONCLUSION: Serum VCAM-1 appears to be a surrogate marker of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Its measurement may, therefore, help in the assessment of antiangiogenesis drugs currently in phase II trials.