• Comparison of the performance of tracer kinetic model-driven registration for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI using different models of contrast enhancement.

      Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; Roberts, Caleb; Cheung, Susan; Watson, Yvonne; O'Connor, James P B; Davies, Karen; Jackson, Alan; Jayson, Gordon C; Parker, Geoff J M; Department of Imaging Science and Biomedical Engineering, Stopford Building, Oxford Road, University of Manchester, and Cancer Research UK Department of Medical Oncology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, UK. giob@manchester.ac.uk (2006-09)
      RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data is subject to model fitting errors caused by motion during the time-series data acquisition. However, the time-varying features that occur as a result of contrast enhancement can confound motion correction techniques based on conventional registration similarity measures. We have therefore developed a heuristic, locally controlled tracer kinetic model-driven registration procedure, in which the model accounts for contrast enhancement, and applied it to the registration of abdominal DCE-MRI data at high temporal resolution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using severely motion-corrupted data sets that had been excluded from analysis in a clinical trial of an antiangiogenic agent, we compared the results obtained when using different models to drive the tracer kinetic model-driven registration with those obtained when using a conventional registration against the time series mean image volume. RESULTS: Using tracer kinetic model-driven registration, it was possible to improve model fitting by reducing the sum of squared errors but the improvement was only realized when using a model that adequately described the features of the time series data. The registration against the time series mean significantly distorted the time series data, as did tracer kinetic model-driven registration using a simpler model of contrast enhancement. CONCLUSION: When an appropriate model is used, tracer kinetic model-driven registration influences motion-corrupted model fit parameter estimates and provides significant improvements in localization in three-dimensional parameter maps. This has positive implications for the use of quantitative DCE-MRI for example in clinical trials of antiangiogenic or antivascular agents.
    • Computed tomography of abdominal carcinoid tumour.

      Gould, M; Johnson, Richard J (1986-09)
      Ten patients with pathologically proven abdominal carcinoid tumour were assessed by computed tomography (CT). Post-mortem examination correlation was obtained in two cases. Computed tomography demonstrated the extent of intra-abdominal tumour well and is, therefore, a useful staging technique for patients being treated with adjuvant therapy. The appearances of metastatic carcinoid within the mesentery on CT are characteristic and can enable a pre-operative diagnosis to be made.
    • Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood.

      Shalet, Stephen M; Beardwell, Colin G; Jones, P H; Pearson, D; Orrell, D (1976-06)
      Ovarian function was studied in 18 female patients treated for abdominal tumours during childhood. All received abdominal radiotherapy as part of their treatment and were studied between 1 and 26 years after irradiation. The serum gonadotrophins and oestradiol levels were consistent with ovarian failure in each case but there was a disproportionate elevation in serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) when compared to serum luteinizing hormone (LH) in 16. In 2 patients, the radiotherapeutic field extended downwards only as far as the sacral promontory. However, these 2 girls show similar evidence of ovarian failure to that in the other 16.
    • Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood: natural history and prognosis.

      Wallace, W Hamish B; Shalet, Stephen M; Crowne, Elizabeth C; Morris-Jones, P H; Gattamaneni, Rao; Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. (1989-11)
      Ovarian function has been reviewed sequentially since 1975 in 53 patients treated in childhood between 1942 and 1985 for an intraabdominal tumour with surgery and external abdominal radiotherapy (XRT). Of 38 patients who received whole abdominal XRT (20-30 Gy), 27 failed to undergo or complete pubertal development (pubertal failure) and a premature menopause (median age 23.5 years) occurred in a further ten. Of 15 patients who received flank XRT (20-30 Gy), ovarian function (median age at last assessment 15.2 years) was normal in all but one in whom pubertal failure occurred. In only one patient, who developed pubertal failure after whole abdominal XRT and required sex steroid replacement therapy (HRT) to achieve normal secondary sexual characteristics, has there been evidence of reversibility of ovarian function with a documented conception at the age of 22.7 years. Five patients who developed pubertal failure required bilateral augmentation mammoplasties despite sex steroid replacement therapy. Four patients have had documented conceptions, all received whole abdominal XRT (20-26.5 Gy) and subsequently developed a premature menopause. There have been no live births, with all miscarriages occurring in the second trimester. The outlook for normal ovarian function following whole abdominal XRT is poor, flank XRT introduced intermittently from 1972, has resulted in less pubertal failure but the possibility of a premature menopause may with time become a reality.
    • Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood: the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte.

      Wallace, W Hamish B; Shalet, Stephen M; Hendry, Jolyon H; Morris-Jones, P H; Gattamaneni, Rao; Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital, Manchester. (1989-11)
      Ovarian function has been studied sequentially since 1975 in 19 patients treated in childhood for an intra-abdominal tumour with surgery and whole abdominal radiotherapy (total dose 30 Gy). Eleven patients received chemotherapeutic agents that are not known to cause gonadal dysfunction. All but one patient have developed ovarian failure with persistently elevated gonadotrophin levels (FSH and LH greater than 32 IU/litre) and low serum oestradiol values (less than 40 pmol/litre) before the age of 16 years. The majority (n = 12) did not progress beyond breast stage 1 without sex steroid replacement therapy. As the number of oocytes within the ovary declines exponentially by atresia from approximately 2,000,000 at birth to approximately 2000 at the menopause, we have been able to estimate that the LD50 for the human oocyte does not exceed 4 Gy.
    • Preliminary study of oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation in MRI: a potential novel biomarker of oxygenation changes in solid tumors.

      O'Connor, James P B; Naish, Josephine H; Parker, Geoff J M; Waterton, John C; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; Cheung, Susan; Buckley, David L; McGrath, Deirdre M; et al. (2009-11-15)
      PURPOSE: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R(1)). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R(1) while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DeltaR(1). RESULTS: DeltaR(1) showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s(-1) in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DeltaR(1) curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.
    • Radiotherapy after chemotherapy for metastatic seminoma--a diminishing role. MRC Testicular Tumour Working Party.

      Duchesne, G; Stenning, S; Aass, N; Mead, G; Fosså, S; Oliver, R; Horwich, A; Read, G; Roberts, I; Rustin, G; et al. (1997-05)
      In a retrospective study, data from 302 patients with metastatic testicular seminoma treated with chemotherapy between 1978 and 1990 in 10 European centres were analysed to evaluate the role, if any, of postchemotherapy treatment with irradiation. The primary endpoint of this study was the progression-free survival rate after chemotherapy with or without additional radiotherapy. This was related to the type of primary chemotherapy, sites and sizes of pre- and postchemotherapy masses, the extent of surgical resection after chemotherapy and the use of radiotherapy. 174 patients had residual disease at the end of chemotherapy. The most important prognostic factors for progression were the presence of any visceral metastases or raised LDH prechemotherapy, and the presence of residual disease at visceral sites after chemotherapy. Approximately half the patients with residual masses underwent postchemotherapy radiotherapy, with selection based predominantly on institutional practice. In patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy, no significant difference was detected in progression-free survival whether or not radiotherapy was employed. Patients receiving BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) had a progression-free survival rate of 88% (95% CI, 80-96%) uninfluenced by postchemotherapy radiotherapy. In patients with residual masses confined to the abdomen after platinum-based chemotherapy, the absolute benefit to radiotherapy was estimated to be 2.3%. The potential benefit of postchemotherapy radiotherapy is minimal, and so it is concluded that the use of adjuvant radiotherapy to residual masses after platinum-based chemotherapy for metastatic seminoma is unnecessary.
    • Unusual sites of lymph node metastases and pitfalls in their detection.

      Moulding, F J; Roach, S C; Carrington, Bernadette M; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. (2004-07)
    • X-ray volumetric imaging in image-guided radiotherapy: the new standard in on-treatment imaging.

      McBain, Catherine A; Henry, Ann M; Sykes, Jonathan R; Amer, Ali M; Marchant, Thomas E; Moore, Christopher J; Davies, Julie; Stratford, Julia; McCarthy, Claire; Porritt, Bridget; et al. (2006-02-01)
      PURPOSE: X-ray volumetric imaging (XVI) for the first time allows for the on-treatment acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) kV cone beam computed tomography (CT) images. Clinical imaging using the Synergy System (Elekta, Crawley, UK) commenced in July 2003. This study evaluated image quality and dose delivered and assessed clinical utility for treatment verification at a range of anatomic sites. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Single XVIs were acquired from 30 patients undergoing radiotherapy for tumors at 10 different anatomic sites. Patients were imaged in their setup position. Radiation doses received were measured using TLDs on the skin surface. The utility of XVI in verifying target volume coverage was qualitatively assessed by experienced clinicians. RESULTS: X-ray volumetric imaging acquisition was completed in the treatment position at all anatomic sites. At sites where a full gantry rotation was not possible, XVIs were reconstructed from projection images acquired from partial rotations. Soft-tissue definition of organ boundaries allowed direct assessment of 3D target volume coverage at all sites. Individual image quality depended on both imaging parameters and patient characteristics. Radiation dose ranged from 0.003 Gy in the head to 0.03 Gy in the pelvis. CONCLUSIONS: On-treatment XVI provided 3D verification images with soft-tissue definition at all anatomic sites at acceptably low radiation doses. This technology sets a new standard in treatment verification and will facilitate novel adaptive radiotherapy techniques.