• Cost effectiveness of increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in small-cell lung cancer: based on data from the Medical Research Council LU19 trial.

      Bojke, Laura; Sculpher, Mark; Stephens, Richard J; Qian, Wendi; Thatcher, Nick; Girling, David J; Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, England. lg116@york.ac.uk (2006)
      BACKGROUND: The use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can enable dose intensification of chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, given its acquisition cost, it is important to assess its cost effectiveness within a resource-constrained health service. OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness, from the UK NHS perspective, of G-CSF given in addition to doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (ACE) versus ACE alone in the management of SCLC. METHODS: Using data from a UK Medical Research Council trial (LU19) to assess chemotherapy dose intensification in patients with previously untreated SCLC of any disease extent, a retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken. Resource use data, including hospitalisations and non-protocol cancer treatments, were collected during the first 6-month treatment phase of the trial. Mean costs ( pound, 2003 values) of managing patients in the two arms of the trial were calculated. Mean survival duration was calculated for the two groups using patient-specific follow-up data collected in the trial. Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken, and uncertainty in cost effectiveness was expressed using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. RESULTS: The use of G-CSF in addition to ACE chemotherapy is more costly ( 4647 pounds) but results in longer mean survival duration (0.20 years; 0.18 years when discounted). This generates an incremental cost per additional life-year of 25,816 pounds for ACE + G-CSF therapy. The probability of the addition of G-CSF being cost effective, if decision makers are willing to pay 30,000 pounds for an additional life-year, is 0.57. Secondary analysis suggests that cost effectiveness is likely to be sensitive to assumptions about the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) experienced by patients. CONCLUSION: Based on data collected in the LU19 trial, chemotherapy dose intensification using G-CSF in SCLC adds to health service costs but increases survival duration. Its overall cost effectiveness is likely to be finely balanced.
    • Ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide with midcycle vincristine versus standard chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer and good performance status: clinical and quality-of-life results of the British Medical Research Council multicenter randomized LU21 trial.

      Thatcher, Nick; Qian, Wendi; Clark, Peter I; Hopwood, Penelope; Sambrook, Robert J; Owens, Robert; Stephens, Richard J; Girling, David J; Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London NW1 2DA, United Kingdom. (2005-11-20)
      PURPOSE: Ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide, and vincristine, alone and in combination, are highly active against small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). This trial was designed to investigate whether survival could be improved by a regimen of all four drugs (ICE-V) compared with standard chemotherapy in patients with SCLC and good performance status, and to assess the patients' quality of life (QL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of either ICE-V at 4-week intervals without dose reduction or standard chemotherapy administered according to local practice. The recommended standard control regimens were cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide; and cisplatin and etoposide. RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were randomly assigned, and 350 (87%) patients have died. Overall survival was longer in the ICE-V group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P = .0049), median survival was 15.6 months in the ICE-V group and 11.6 months in the control group, and 2-year survival rates were 20% and 11%, respectively. There was no evidence that the relative survival benefit for ICE-V was less in extensive-stage than in limited-stage patients. An increased rate of septicemia was reported in the ICE-V group (15% v 7% in the control group), but this did not result in an increase in reported treatment-related deaths (four patients [2%] in both groups). The findings on QL were broadly similar in both groups, with some benefit in favor of ICE-V. CONCLUSION: Compared with standard chemotherapy, the ICE-V regimen improves overall survival without QL penalties, despite an increased but manageable level of toxicity.
    • Immediate versus delayed palliative thoracic radiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and minimal thoracic symptoms: randomised controlled trial.

      Falk, Stephen J; Girling, David J; White, Roger J; Hopwood, Penelope; Harvey, Angela; Qian, Wendi; Stephens, Richard J; Department of Oncology, Bristol Oncology Centre, Bristol BS2 8ED. (2002-08-31)
      OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer unsuitable for resection or radical radiotherapy, and with minimal thoracic symptoms, should be given palliative thoracic radiotherapy immediately or as needed to treat symptoms. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 23 centres in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 230 patients with previously untreated, non-small cell lung cancer that is locally too advanced for resection or radical radiotherapy with curative intent, with minimal thoracic symptoms, and with no indication for immediate thoracic radiotherapy. INTERVENTIONS: All patients were given supportive treatment and were randomised to receive palliative thoracic radiotherapy either immediately or delayed until needed to treat symptoms. The recommended regimens were 17 Gy in two fractions one week apart or 10 Gy as a single dose. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary--patients alive and without moderate or severe cough, chest pain, haemoptysis, or dyspnoea six months from randomisation, as recorded by clinicians. Secondary--quality of life, adverse events, survival. RESULTS: From December 1992 to May 1999, 230 patients were randomised. 104/115 of the patients in the immediate treatment group received thoracic radiotherapy (90 received one of the recommended regimens). In the delayed treatment group, 48/115 (42%) patients received thoracic radiotherapy (29 received one of the recommended regimens); 64 (56%) died without receiving thoracic radiotherapy; the remaining three (3%) were alive at the end of the study without having received the treatment. For patients who received thoracic radiotherapy, the median time to start was 15 days in the immediate treatment group and 125 days in the delayed treatment group. The primary outcome measure was achieved in 28% of the immediate treatment group and 26% of patients from the delayed treatment group (27/97 and 27/103, respectively; absolute difference 1.6%, 95% confidence interval -10.7% to 13.9%). No evidence of a difference was observed between the two treatment groups in terms of activity level, anxiety, depression, and psychological distress, as recorded by the patients. Adverse events were more common in the immediate treatment group. Neither group had a survival advantage (hazard ratio 0.95, 0.73 to 1.24; P=0.71). Median survival was 8.3 months and 7.9 months, and the survival rates were 31% and 29% at 12 months, for the immediate and delayed treatment groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: In minimally symptomatic patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, no persuasive evidence was found to indicate that giving immediate palliative thoracic radiotherapy improves symptom control, quality of life, or survival when compared with delaying until symptoms require treatment.
    • Improving survival without reducing quality of life in small-cell lung cancer patients by increasing the dose-intensity of chemotherapy with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support: results of a British Medical Research Council Multicenter Randomized Trial. Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party.

      Thatcher, Nick; Girling, David J; Hopwood, Penelope; Sambrook, Robert J; Qian, Wendi; Stephens, Richard J; Cancer Division, Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom. (2000-01)
      PURPOSE: The treatment of small-cell lung cancer patients with good performance status aims to improve survival. Dose-intensification could be a way to achieve improved survival but can be limited by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Preliminary, nonrandomized feasibility studies showed that doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (ACE) could be given every 2 (instead of the usual 3) weeks with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (lenograstim; Chugai-Rh¿one-Poulenc, Tokyo, Japan) support. The present multicenter randomized trial was designed to examine whether such dose-intensification improves survival while maintaining acceptable toxicity levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients were randomized to receive six cycles of ACE either every 3 weeks (control [C] group) or every 2 weeks with G-CSF (G group). The standard dose-intensity of ACE was increased by 50% in group G. RESULTS: Four hundred and three patients (G group: n = 201; C group: n = 202) were randomized. The received dose-intensity was 34% higher in the G group than in the C group. Complete response rates were 40% for the G group and 28% for the C group (P =.02), and overall rates were 78% for the G group and 79% for the C group. Survival was longer in the G group (hazard ratio = 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.99; P =.04), survival rates for the G and C groups being 47% and 39% at 12 months and 13% and 8% at 24 months, respectively. Metastasis-free survival, nonhematologic toxicity, and quality of life were similar in the two groups. In the G group, there was less neutropenia but more thrombocytopenia and more frequent blood and platelet transfusions. CONCLUSION: Increasing the dose-intensity of ACE with G-CSF support improved survival while maintaining acceptable toxicity.
    • A prospective clinicopathologic study of dose-modified CODOX-M/IVAC in patients with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma defined using cytogenetic and immunophenotypic criteria (MRC/NCRI LY10 trial).

      Mead, Graham M; Barrans, Sharon L; Qian, Wendi; Walewski, Jan; Radford, John A; Wolf, Max; Clawson, Simon; Stenning, Sally P; Yule, Claire L; Jack, Andrew S; et al. (2008-09-15)
      This prospective study aimed to develop reproducible diagnostic criteria for sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (BL), applicable to routine practice, and to evaluate the efficacy of dose-modified (dm) CODOX-M/IVAC in patients diagnosed using these criteria. The study was open to patients with an aggressive B-cell lymphoma with an MKI67 fraction approaching 100%. Immunophenotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to separate BL from other aggressive B-cell lymphomas. BL was characterized by the presence of a cMYC rearrangement as a sole cytogenetic abnormality occurring in patients with a germinal center phenotype with absence of BCL-2 expression and abnormal TP53 expression. A total of 128 patients were eligible for the study, of whom 58 were considered to have BL and 70 to have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There were 110 clinically fit patients who received dmCODOX-M (methotrexate, dose 3 g/m(2)) with or without IVAC according to risk group. The 2-year progression-free survival was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI] 51%-77%) for BL, 55% (95% CI 42%-66%) for DLBCL, 85% (95% CI 73%-97%) for low risk, and 49% (95% CI 38%-60%) for high-risk patients. The observed differences in outcome and other clinical features validate the proposed diagnostic criteria. Compared with the previous trial LY06 with full-dose methotrexate (6.7 g/m(2)), there was a reduction in toxicity with comparable outcomes. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00040690.