• Nivolumab versus placebo in patients with relapsed malignant mesothelioma (CONFIRM): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial

      Fennell, D. A.; Ewings, S.; Ottensmeier, C.; Califano, Raffaele; Hanna, G. G.; Hill, K.; Danson, S.; Steele, N.; Nye, M.; Johnson, L.; et al. (2021)
      Background: No phase 3 trial has yet shown improved survival for patients with pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma who have progressed following platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, in these patients. Methods: This was a multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group, randomised, phase 3 trial done in 24 hospitals in the UK. Adult patients (aged ?18 years) with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, with histologically confirmed pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma, who had received previous first-line platinum-based chemotherapy and had radiological evidence of disease progression, were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive nivolumab at a flat dose of 240 mg every 2 weeks over 30 min intravenously or placebo until disease progression or a maximum of 12 months. The randomisation sequence was generated within an interactive web response system (Alea); patients were stratified according to epithelioid versus non-epithelioid histology and were assigned in random block sizes of 3 and 6. Participants and treating clinicians were masked to group allocation. The co-primary endpoints were investigator-assessed progression-free survival and overall survival, analysed according to the treatment policy estimand (an equivalent of the intention-to-treat principle). All patients who were randomly assigned were included in the safety population, reported according to group allocation. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03063450. Findings: Between May 10, 2017, and March 30, 2020, 332 patients were recruited, of whom 221 (67%) were randomly assigned to the nivolumab group and 111 (33%) were assigned to the placebo group). Median follow-up was 11�6 months (IQR 7�2-16�8). Median progression-free survival was 3�0 months (95% CI 2�8-4�1) in the nivolumab group versus 1�8 months (1�4-2�6) in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0�67 [95% CI 0�53-0�85; p=0�0012). Median overall survival was 10�2 months (95% CI 8�5-12�1) in the nivolumab group versus 6�9 months (5�0-8�0) in the placebo group (adjusted HR 0�69 [95% CI 0�52-0�91]; p=0�0090). The most frequently reported grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea (six [3%] of 221 in the nivolumab group vs two [2%] of 111 in the placebo group) and infusion-related reaction (six [3%] vs ). Serious adverse events occurred in 90 (41%) patients in the nivolumab group and 49 (44%) patients in the placebo group. There were no treatment-related deaths in either group.
    • Nivolumab versus placebo in patients with relapsed malignant mesothelioma (CONFIRM): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial

      Fennell, D. A.; Ewings, S.; Ottensmeier, C.; Califano, Raffaele; Hanna, G. G.; Hill, K.; Danson, S.; Steele, N.; Nye, M.; Johnson, L.; et al. (2021)