• Renal myopericytoma: A case report and literature review

      Riley, T.; Shenjere, Patrick; Jain, A.; Sunder, S.; North Manchester General Hospital, Pennine Acute NHS Hospitals Trust, Delaunay's Road, Manchester, M8 5RB (2021)
      Renal myopericytoma is an extremely rare entity with just 11 cases reported in the literature. We report the case of a 57 year old Caucasian man who was found to have a renal myopericytoma following nephrectomy for suspected renal cell carcinoma. Renal myopericytoma has a distinct morphological overlap with other pericytic tumours and significant histological variation has been noted between cases reported to date. Further characterising this novel tumour is vital to identify subtypes within this spectrum, understand its behaviour and to identify imaging trends which may lead to pre-operative diagnosis in order to potentially avoid radical treatment.
    • Correction to: the impact of COVID-19 on interventional radiology services in the UK

      Zhong, J.; Datta, Anubhav; Gordon, T.; Adams, S.; Guo, T.; Abdelaziz, M.; Barbour, F.; Palkhi, E.; Adusumilli, P.; Oomerjee, M.; et al. (2021)
      None
    • Practical recommendations for the management of patients with gastroenteropancreatic and thoracic (carcinoid) neuroendocrine neoplasms in the COVID-19 era

      Rodriguez-Freixinos, V.; Capdevila, J.; Pavel, M.; Thawer, A.; Baudin, E.; O'Toole, D.; Herrmann, K.; Welin, S.; Grozinsky-Glasberg, S.; de Herder, W. W.; et al. (2020)
      Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous family of uncommon tumours with challenging diagnosis, clinical management and unique needs that almost always requires a multidisciplinary approach. In the absence of guidance from the scientific literature, along with the rapidly changing data available on the effect of COVID-19, we report how 12 high-volume NEN centres of expertise in 10 countries at different stages of the evolving COVID-19 global pandemic along with members of international neuroendocrine cancer patient societies have suggested to preserve high standards of care for patients with NENs. We review the multidisciplinary management of neuroendocrine neoplasms during the COVID-19 pandemic, and we suggest potential strategies to reduce risk and aid multidisciplinary treatment decision-making. By sharing our joint experiences, we aim to generate recommendations for proceeding to other institutions facing the same challenges.
    • Tribute to David Thwaites

      Georg, D.; van der Heide, U. A.; Aznar, Marianne Camille; Baumann, M.; Division Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna/AKH Wien, Austria. (2020)
      None
    • Education to improve cancer care for LGBTQ+ patients in the UK

      Berner, A. M.; Webster, R.; Hughes, D. J.; Tharmalingam, H.; Saunders, Daniel; Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; Gender Identity Clinic, The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. (2020)
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    • Radiation oncology in the new virtual and digital era

      Aznar, Marianne Camille; Bacchus, C.; Coppes, R. P.; Deutsch, E.; Georg, D.; Haustermans, K.; Hoskin, P.; Krause, M.; Lartigau, E. F.; Löck, S.; et al. (2020)
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    • Correction to: Infantile fibrosarcoma with TPN3-NTRK3 fusion in a boy with Bloom Syndrome

      Huson, S. M.; Staab, T.; Pereira, M.; Ward, H.; Paredes, R.; Evans, D. G.; Baumhoer, D.; O'Sullivan, J.; Cheesman, E.; Schindler, D.; et al. (2021)
      None
    • Circulating tumour DNA as a biomarker in resectable and irresectable stage IV colorectal cancer; a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Jones, R. P.; Pugh, S. A.; Graham, J.; Primrose, J. N.; Barriuso, Jorge; School of Cancer Studies, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Liverpool University Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. (2021)
      Background: For patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, stratification for treatment (surgery or chemotherapy) is often based on crude clinicopathological characteristics like tumour size and number of lesions. Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) acts as a potential biomarker of disease trajectory and biology, allowing better stratification. This study aims to systematically review ctDNA in stage IV colorectal cancer to assess its potential role as a prospective biomarker to guide management decisions. Methods: A literature search was performed to identify studies where the measurement of ctDNA in stage IV colorectal cancer was correlated with a clinical outcome (radiological response, secondary resection rate, PFS, DFS or OS). Results: Twenty-eight studies were included, reporting on 2823 patients. Circulating tumour DNA was detectable in between 80% and 90% of patients prior to treatment. Meta-analysis identified a strong correlation between detectable ctDNA after treatment (surgery or chemotherapy) and overall survival (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.79-2.69, p < 0.00001), as well as progression-free survival (HR 3.15, 95% CI 2.10-4.73, p < 0.00001). ctDNA consistently offered an early marker of long-term prognosis in irresectable disease, with changes after one cycle of systemic therapy demonstrating prognostic value. In resectable disease treated with curative intent, detection of ctDNA offered a lead time over radiological recurrence of 10 months. Conclusion: Circulating tumour DNA is detectable in the majority of resectable and irresectable patients. The presence of ctDNA is clearly associated with shorter overall survival, with changes in ctDNA an early biomarker of adverse disease behaviour. Prospective trials are essential to test its clinical efficacy.
    • Surrogate-free machine learning-based organ dose reconstruction for pediatric abdominal radiotherapy

      Virgolin, M.; Wang, Z.; Balgobind, B. V.; van Dijk, I.; Wiersma, J.; Kroon, P. S.; Janssens, G. O.; van Herk, Marcel; Hodgson, D. C.; Zaletel, L. Z.; et al. (2020)
      To study radiotherapy-related adverse effects, detailed dose information (3D distribution) is needed for accurate dose-effect modeling. For childhood cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy in the pre-CT era, only 2D radiographs were acquired, thus 3D dose distributions must be reconstructed from limited information. State-of-the-art methods achieve this by using 3D surrogate anatomies. These can however lack personalization and lead to coarse reconstructions. We present and validate a surrogate-free dose reconstruction method based on Machine Learning (ML). Abdominal planning CTs (n=142) of recently-treated childhood cancer patients were gathered, their organs at risk were segmented, and 300 artificial Wilms' tumor plans were sampled automatically. Each artificial plan was automatically emulated on the 142 CTs, resulting in 42,600 3D dose distributions from which dose-volume metrics were derived. Anatomical features were extracted from digitally reconstructed radiographs simulated from the CTs to resemble historical radiographs. Further, patient and radiotherapy plan features typically available from historical treatment records were collected. An evolutionary ML algorithm was then used to link features to dose-volume metrics. Besides 5-fold cross validation, a further evaluation was done on an independent dataset of five CTs each associated with two clinical plans. Cross-validation resulted in mean absolute errors ≤0.6 Gy for organs completely inside or outside the field. For organs positioned at the edge of the field, mean absolute errors ≤1.7 Gy for Dmean, ≤2.9 Gy for D2cc, and ≤13% for V5Gyand V10Gy, were obtained, without systematic bias. Similar results were found for the independent dataset. To conclude, we proposed a novel organ dose reconstruction method that uses ML models to predict dose-volume metric values given patient and plan features. Our approach is not only accurate, but also efficient, as the setup of a surrogate is no longer needed.
    • Optimal timing for COVID-19 vaccination in oncology patients receiving chemotherapy?

      Sudan, A.; Iype, Rohan; Kelly, C.; Iqbal, M. S.; Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Newcastle Hospital Foundation Trust, High Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. (2020)
    • A soft silicone foam dressing that aids healing and comfort in oncology care

      Pramod, Susy; Tissue Viability Nurse, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester. (2021)
      Maintaining skin integrity plays a key role in the ongoing care and comfort of patients at the end of life. Unfortunately, patients receiving cancer treatments are at higher risk of altered skin integrity. Cancer treatments involve multiple modalities, all of which impair wound healing. Excess exudate can be distressing to patients, resulting in catastrophic damage to the wound bed and surrounding skin, reducing quality of life and increasing the need for specialist services. This article describes the use of the Kliniderm foam silicone range of dressings, in combination with best practice, in the treatment of wounds in the oncology setting. The case study evidence presented indicates that this range of dressings is useful in the management of radiotherapy and oncology wounds. It had a positive effect on the exudate level, wound-association pain and the peri-wound skin in these patients, aiding the management of the wound bed.
    • Preventing and managing device-related pressure ulcers in oncology

      Pramod, Susy; Tissue Viability Nurse, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. (2021)
      There is growing evidence that medical device-related pressure ulcers (MDRPUs) are an increasing healthcare concern in all aspects of care. It is especially important to develop an individualised care plan for people at the end of life to prevent pressure ulceration and to treat this if it occurs. Tissue viability nurses have a responsibility to review and assess new prophylactic devices and dressings, to ensure a high standard of care is provided. This article describes the use of a soft silicone dressing, Kliniderm foam silicone lite, in combination with best practice, to prevent MDRPUs in the oncology setting. Three case studies show that the dressing helped avoid the occurrence of ulceration on the ears and nose in patients receiving oxygen through a nasal cannula.
    • Developing and evaluating a pathway for screening and treatment of depression in patients with head and neck cancer

      Waltho, A.; Thomson, David J; Pattison, Richard; Woolley, Joanne; Hawthorn, T.; Derbyshire Community Health Services Foundation Trust, Cavendish Hospital, Manchester Road, Buxton SK17 6TE, (2020)
    • Phase 1b study of tirabrutinib in combination with idelalisib or entospletinib in previously treated B-cell lymphoma

      Morschhauser, F.; Dyer, M. J. S.; Walter, H. S.; Danilov, A. V.; Ysebaert, L.; Hodson, D. J.; Fegan, C.; Rule, S. A.; Radford, John A; Cartron, G.; et al. (2020)
    • Patient and public involvement refines the design of ProtOeus: a proposed phase II trial of proton beam therapy in oesophageal cancer

      Nicholas, O. J.; Joseph, O.; Keane, A.; Cleary, K.; Campbell, S. H.; Gwynne, S. H.; Crosby, T.; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Hawkins, M. A.; South West Wales Cancer Centre, Singleton Hospital, Sketty Lane, Swansea, SA2 8QA (2020)
      Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer significantly improves overall survival but is associated with severe post-operative complications. Proton beam therapy may reduce these toxicities by sparing normal tissues compared with standard radiotherapy. ProtOeus is a proposed randomised phase II study of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal cancer that compares proton beam therapy to standard radiotherapy techniques. As proton beam therapy services are often centralised in academic centres in major cities, proton beam therapy trials raise distinct challenges including patient acceptance of travelling for proton beam therapy, coordination of treatments with local centres and ensuring equity of access for patients. Methods: Focus groups were held early in the trial development process to establish patients' views on the trial proposal. Topics discussed include perception of proton beam therapy, patient acceptability of the trial pathway and design, patient-facing materials, and common clinical scenarios. Focus groups were led by the investigators and facilitated by patient involvement teams from the institutions who are involved in this research. Responses for each topic were analysed, and fed back to the trial's development group. Results: Three focus groups were held in separate locations in the UK (Manchester, Cardiff, Wigan). Proton beam therapy was perceived as superior to standard radiotherapy making the trial attractive. Patients felt strongly that travel costs should be reimbursed to ensure equity of access to proton beam therapy. They were very supportive of a shorter treatment schedule and felt that toxicity reduction was the most important endpoint. Discussion and conclusions: Incorporating patient views early in the trial development process resulted in significant trial design refinements including travel/accommodation provisions, choice of primary endpoint, randomisation ratio and fractionation schedule. Focus groups are a reproducible and efficient method of incorporating the patient and public voice into research.
    • Objective responses to first-line neoadjuvant carboplatin-paclitaxel regimens for ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma (ICON8): post-hoc exploratory analysis of a randomised, phase 3 trial

      Morgan, Robert David; McNeish, I. A.; Cook, A. D.; James, E. C.; Lord, R.; Dark, G.; Glasspool, R. M.; Krell, J.; Parkinson, C.; Poole, C. J.; et al. (2020)
      Background: Platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by delayed primary surgery (DPS) is an established strategy for women with newly diagnosed, advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Although this therapeutic approach has been validated in randomised, phase 3 trials, evaluation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1 (RECIST), and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) has not been reported. We describe RECIST and Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) CA125 responses in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS in the ICON8 trial. Methods: ICON8 was an international, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial done across 117 hospitals in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, South Korea, and Ireland. The trial included women aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, life expectancy of more than 12 weeks, and newly diagnosed International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO; 1988) stage IC-IIA high-grade serous, clear cell, or any poorly differentiated or grade 3 histological subtype, or any FIGO (1988) stage IIB-IV epithelial cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneum. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive intravenous carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC]5 or AUC6) and intravenous paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 by body surface area) on day 1 of every 21-day cycle (control group; group 1); intravenous carboplatin (AUC5 or AUC6) on day 1 and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 2); or intravenous dose-fractionated carboplatin (AUC2) and intravenous dose-fractionated paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 by body surface area) on days 1, 8, and 15 of every 21-day cycle (group 3). The maximum number of cycles of chemotherapy permitted was six. Randomisation was done with a minimisation method, and patients were stratified according to GCIG group, disease stage, and timing and outcome of cytoreductive surgery. Patients and clinicians were not masked to group allocation. The scheduling of surgery and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were determined by local multidisciplinary case review. In this post-hoc exploratory analysis of ICON8, progression-free survival was analysed using the landmark method and defined as the time interval between the date of pre-surgical planning radiological tumour assessment to the date of investigator-assessed clinical or radiological progression or death, whichever occurred first. This definition is different from the intention-to-treat primary progression-free survival analysis of ICON8, which defined progression-free survival as the time from randomisation to the date of first clinical or radiological progression or death, whichever occurred first. We also compared the extent of surgical cytoreduction with RECIST and GCIG CA125 responses. This post-hoc exploratory analysis includes only women recruited to ICON8 who were planned for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS and had RECIST and/or GCIG CA125-evaluable disease. ICON8 is closed for enrolment and follow-up, and registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01654146. Findings: Between June 6, 2011, and Nov 28, 2014, 1566 women were enrolled in ICON8, of whom 779 (50%) were planned for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS. Median follow-up was 29·5 months (IQR 15·6-54·3) for the neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by DPS population. Of 564 women who had RECIST-evaluable disease at trial entry, 348 (62%) had a complete or partial response. Of 727 women who were evaluable by GCIG CA125 criteria at the time of diagnosis, 610 (84%) had a CA125 response. Median progression-free survival was 14·4 months (95% CI 9·2-28·0; 297 events) for patients with a RECIST complete or partial response and 13·3 months (8·1-20·1; 171 events) for those with RECIST stable disease. Median progression-free survival for women with a GCIG CA125 response was 13·8 months (95% CI 8·8-23·4; 544 events) and 9·7 months (5·8-14·5; 111 events) for those without a GCIG CA125 response. Complete cytoreduction (R0) was achieved in 187 (56%) of 335 women with a RECIST complete or partial response and 73 (42%) of 172 women with RECIST stable disease. Complete cytoreduction was achieved in 290 (50%) of 576 women with a GCIG CA125 response and 30 (30%) of 101 women without a GCIG CA125 response. Interpretation: The RECIST-defined radiological response rate was lower than that frequently quoted to patients in the clinic. RECIST and GCIG CA125 responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for epithelial ovarian cancer should not be used as individual predictive markers to stratify patients who are likely to benefit from DPS, but instead used in conjunction with the patient's clinical capacity to undergo cytoreductive surgery. A patient should not be denied surgery based solely on the lack of a RECIST or GCIG CA125 response.
    • A phase II study of biodegradable stents plus palliative radiotherapy in oesophageal cancer

      Maishman, T.; Sheikh, Hamid; Boger, P.; Kelly, J.; Cozens, K.; Bateman, A.; Davies, S.; Fay, M.; Sharland, D.; Jackson, A.; et al. (2021)
      Aims: Self-expanding metal stents provide rapid improvement of dysphagia in oesophageal cancer but are associated with complications. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of an alternative treatment of combining biodegradable stents with radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A Simon two-stage single-arm prospective phase II trial design was used to determine the efficacy of biodegradable stents plus radiotherapy in patients with dysphagia caused by oesophagus cancer who were unsuitable for radical treatment. Fourteen patients were recruited and data from 12 were included in the final analyses. Results: Five of 12 patients met the primary end point: one stent-related patient death; four further interventions for dysphagia within 16 weeks of stenting (41.7%, 95% confidence interval 15.2-72.3%). The median time to a 10-point deterioration of quality of life was 2.7 weeks. Nine patients died within 52 weeks of registration. The median time to death from any cause was 15.0 weeks (95% confidence interval 9.6-not reached). Conclusion: The high re-intervention observed, which met the pre-defined early stopping criteria, meant that the suggested alternative treatment was not sufficiently effective to be considered for a larger scale trial design. Further work is needed to define the place of biodegradable stents in the management of malignant oesophageal strictures.
    • The impact of changes in service delivery in patients with colorectal cancer during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic

      Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Saunders, Mark P; Lim, Kok Haw Jonathan; Marti, Kalena; Anderson, Daniel; Cutting, Mark; McCool, Danielle; Connell, Jacqueline; Simpson, Lilly; Hasan, Jurjees; et al. (2020)
      Background: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed significant changes in cancer service delivery resulting in increased anxiety and distress in both patients and clinicians. We aimed to investigate how these changes have been perceived by patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and identify determinants of increased anxiety. Patients and methods: An anonymized 32-item survey in the specialized lower gastrointestinal cancer outpatient clinics at a tertiary cancer center in North West England between May 18 and July 1, 2020. Self-reported anxiety was based on the General Anxiety Disorder-7 screening tool. Results: Of 143 participants who completed the survey (response rate, 67%), 115 (82%) were male, and the median age group was 61 to 70 years. A total of 112 (78%) participants had telephone consultation (83% met needs), and 57 (40%) had radiologic scan results discussed over the phone (96% met needs). In total, 23 (18%) participants were considered to have anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 score ≥ 5), with 7 (5.5%) scoring for moderate or severe anxiety. Those concerned about getting COVID-19 infection, and worried COVID-19 would have effect on their mental health, and affect their experience of cancer care, were most likely to have anxiety (P < .05, multivariate analysis). The majority did not feel they needed support during this phase of the pandemic. Participants felt that friends and family had been very supportive, but less so the primary care services (P < .05). Conclusions: The findings of this survey suggest that some of the service changes implemented may have already improved the overall experience of cancer care among patients with colorectal cancer at our institute. Reassuringly, the incidence of participants with moderate to severe anxiety levels during the peak of COVID-19 in the United Kingdom was much lower than anticipated. Importantly, patients were much more concerned about their cancer treatment than COVID-19, emphasizing the need to continue to provide comprehensive cancer care even with a "second wave" of COVID-19.
    • ESMO20 YO for YO: highlights on oncogene-addicted NSCLC

      Lim, Kok Haw Jonathan; Gomes, Fabio; Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, London, UK. (2020)
    • Additional SNPs improve risk stratification of a polygenic hazard score for prostate cancer

      Karunamuni, R. A.; Huynh-Le, M. P.; Fan, C. C.; Thompson, W.; Eeles, R. A.; Kote-Jarai, Z.; Muir, K.; Lophatananon, A.; Schleutker, J.; Pashayan, N.; et al. (2021)
      Background: Polygenic hazard scores (PHS) can identify individuals with increased risk of prostate cancer. We estimated the benefit of additional SNPs on performance of a previously validated PHS (PHS46). Materials and method: 180 SNPs, shown to be previously associated with prostate cancer, were used to develop a PHS model in men with European ancestry. A machine-learning approach, LASSO-regularized Cox regression, was used to select SNPs and to estimate their coefficients in the training set (75,596 men). Performance of the resulting model was evaluated in the testing/validation set (6,411 men) with two metrics: (1) hazard ratios (HRs) and (2) positive predictive value (PPV) of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. HRs were estimated between individuals with PHS in the top 5% to those in the middle 40% (HR95/50), top 20% to bottom 20% (HR80/20), and bottom 20% to middle 40% (HR20/50). PPV was calculated for the top 20% (PPV80) and top 5% (PPV95) of PHS as the fraction of individuals with elevated PSA that were diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer on biopsy. Results: 166 SNPs had non-zero coefficients in the Cox model (PHS166). All HR metrics showed significant improvements for PHS166 compared to PHS46: HR95/50 increased from 3.72 to 5.09, HR80/20 increased from 6.12 to 9.45, and HR20/50 decreased from 0.41 to 0.34. By contrast, no significant differences were observed in PPV of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer. Conclusions: Incorporating 120 additional SNPs (PHS166 vs PHS46) significantly improved HRs for prostate cancer, while PPV of PSA testing remained the same.