• Nothing is impossible: radiation induced angiosarcoma of breast in a male patient

      Tsapralis, Nikolaos; Vlachogiorgos, Apostolos; Pham, Hien; Mowatt, David J; Department of Reconstructive and Plastic Surgery, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M204BX, UK (2019)
      Breast cancer in men is rare and only about 390 men in the UK are diagnosed with breast cancer each year with an incidence rate in the UK of 1.5 cases per 100 000 men. In addition, the increased use of radiotherapy for management of breast cancer has led to a reported increase of radiation induced angiosarcomas (RIAS) with an incidence of 0.05-0.3%. Here we report a unique and extremely rare case of RIAS of breast in a male patient. To our knowledge this is the only case in the literature of a radiation induced angiosarcoma of the breast in a male.
    • Current status of immune checkpoint inhibition in early stage NSCLC

      Vansteenkiste, J; Wauters, E; Reymen, B; Ackermann, Christoph J; Peters, S; De Ruysscher, D; Respiratory Oncology Unit, University Hospital KU Leuven, Leuven; Belgium (2019)
      Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) immunotherapy has revolutionized the approach to metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In particular, antibodies blocking the inhibitory immune checkpoints programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) are associated with higher response rates, improved overall survival and better tolerability as compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Recently, ICI has moved from the second-line to the first-line setting for many patients with non-oncogene addicted NSCLC, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. The next logical step is to examine this therapy in patients with non-metastatic NSCLC to improve long-term overall survival and cure rates. For patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC, ICI with durvalumab after concurrent chemoradiotherapy has brought a major improvement in 2-year progression-free and overall survival, which holds promise for an improved cure rate. As the relapse pattern in patients with completely resected early stage NSCLC is predominantly systemic, high expectations rest on the integration of ICI therapy in their treatment approach. A large number of studies with adjuvant or neo-adjuvant ICI are ongoing, and will be discussed here. The advent of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) has brought a valid alternative treatment for patients unfit for or not willing to undergo surgery. Data on combining systemic therapy and SABR is virtually non-existent, but there is a strong biological rationale to combine radiotherapy and ICI therapy. Early findings in small feasibility studies are promising and now need to be explored in well-designed phase III trials.
    • REQUITE: a prospective multicentre cohort study of patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast, lung or prostate cancer

      Seibold, P; Webb, A; Aguado-Barrera, ME; Azria, D; Bourgier, C; Brengues, M; Briers, E; Bultijnck, R; Calvo-Crespo, P; Carballo, A; et al. (2019)
      PURPOSE: REQUITE aimed to establish a resource for multi-national validation of models and biomarkers that predict risk of late toxicity following radiotherapy. The purpose of this article is to provide summary descriptive data. METHODS: An international, prospective cohort study recruited cancer patients in 26 hospitals in eight countries between April 2014 and March 2017. Target recruitment was 5300 patients. Eligible patients had breast, prostate or lung cancer and planned potentially curable radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was prescribed according to local regimens, but centres used standardised data collection forms. Pre-treatment blood samples were collected. Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 (lung) or 24 (breast/prostate) months and summary descriptive statistics were generated. RESULTS: The study recruited 2069 breast (99% of target), 1808 prostate (86%) and 561 lung (51%) cancer patients. The centralised, accessible database includes: physician- (47,025 forms) and patient- (54,901) reported outcomes; 11,563 breast photos; 17,107 DICOMs and 12,684 DVHs. Imputed genotype data are available for 4223 patients with European ancestry (1948 breast, 1728 prostate, 547 lung). Radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) assay data are available for 1319 patients. DNA (n?=?4409) and PAXgene tubes (n?=?3039) are stored in the centralised biobank. Example prevalences of 2-year (1-year for lung) grade ³2 CTCAE toxicities are 13% atrophy (breast), 3% rectal bleeding (prostate) and 27% dyspnoea (lung). CONCLUSION: The comprehensive centralised database and linked biobank is a valuable resource for the radiotherapy community for validating predictive models and biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY: Up to half of cancer patients undergo radiation therapy and irradiation of surrounding healthy tissue is unavoidable. Damage to healthy tissue can affect short- and long-term quality-of-life. Not all patients are equally sensitive to radiation "damage" but it is not possible at the moment to identify those who are. REQUITE was established with the aim of trying to understand more about how we could predict radiation sensitivity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and summary of the data and material available. In the REQUITE study 4400 breast, prostate and lung cancer patients filled out questionnaires and donated blood. A large amount of data was collected in the same way. With all these data and samples a database and biobank were created that showed it is possible to collect this kind of information in a standardised way across countries. In the future, our database and linked biobank will be a resource for research and validation of clinical predictors and models of radiation sensitivity. REQUITE will also enable a better understanding of how many people suffer with radiotherapy toxicity.
    • Addition of docetaxel to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): modelling to estimate long-term survival, quality-adjusted survival, and cost-effectiveness

      Woods, BS; Sideris, E; Sydes, MR; Gannon, MR; Parmar, MKB; Alzouebi, M; Attard, G; Birtle, AJ; Brock, S; Cathomas, R; et al. (2019)
    • High EMSY expression defines a BRCA-like subgroup of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma with prolonged survival and hypersensitivity to platinum

      Hollis, RL; Churchman, M; Michie, CO; Rye, T; Knight, L; McCavigan, A; Perren, T; Williams, ARW; McCluggage, WG; Kaplan, RS; et al. (2019)
      BACKGROUND: Approximately half of high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs) demonstrate homologous recombination repair (HR) pathway defects, resulting in a distinct clinical phenotype comprising hypersensitivity to platinum, superior clinical outcome, and greater sensitivity to poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. EMSY, which is known to be amplified in breast and ovarian cancers, encodes a protein reported to bind and inactivate BRCA2. Thus, EMSY overexpression may mimic BRCA2 mutation, resulting in HR deficiency. However, to our knowledge, the phenotypic consequences of EMSY overexpression in HGSOC patients has not been explored. METHODS: Here we investigate the impact of EMSY expression on clinical outcome and sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy using available data from transcriptomically characterized HGSOC cohorts. RESULTS: High EMSY expression was associated with better clinical outcome in a cohort of 265 patients with HGSOC from Edinburgh (overall survival multivariable hazard ratio, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38-0.88; P = .011] and progression-free survival multivariable hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.40-0.96; P = .030]). Superior outcome also was demonstrated in the Medical Research Council ICON7 clinical trial and multiple publicly available data sets. Patients within the Edinburgh cohort who had high EMSY expression were found to demonstrate greater rates of complete response to multiple platinum-containing chemotherapy regimens (radiological complete response rate of 44.4% vs 12.5% at second exposure; P = .035) and corresponding prolonged time to disease progression (median, 151.5 days vs 60.5 days after third platinum exposure; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HGSOCs demonstrating high EMSY expression appear to experience prolonged survival and greater platinum sensitivity, reminiscent of BRCA-mutant cases. These data are consistent with the notion that EMSY overexpression may render HGSOCs HR deficient.
    • Cediranib in patients with alveolar soft-part sarcoma (CASPS): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 2 trial

      Judson, I; Morden, JP; Kilburn, L; Leahy, Michael G; Benson, C; Bhadri, V; Campbell-Hewson, Q; Cubedo, R; Dangoor, A; Fox, L; et al. (2019)
      BACKGROUND: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma that is unresponsive to chemotherapy. Cediranib, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, has shown substantial activity in ASPS in non-randomised studies. The Cediranib in Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma (CASPS) study was designed to discriminate the effect of cediranib from the intrinsically indolent nature of ASPS. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, phase 2 trial, we recruited participants from 12 hospitals in the UK (n=7), Spain (n=3), and Australia (n=2). Patients were eligible if they were aged 16 years or older; metastatic ASPS that had progressed in the previous 6 months; had an ECOG performance status of 0-1; life expectancy of more than 12 weeks; and adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function. Participants had to have no anti-cancer treatment within 4 weeks before trial entry, with exception of palliative radiotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned (2:1), with allocation by use of computer-generated random permuted blocks of six, to either cediranib (30 mg orally, once daily) or matching placebo tablets for 24 weeks. Treatment was supplied in number-coded bottles, masking participants and clinicians to assignment. Participants were unblinded at week 24 or sooner if they had progression defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1); those on placebo crossed over to cediranib and all participants continued on treatment until progression or death. The primary endpoint was percentage change in sum of target marker lesion diameters between baseline and week 24 or progression if sooner, assessed in the evaluable population (all randomly assigned participants who had a scan at week 24 [or sooner if they progressed] with target marker lesions measured). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01337401; the European Clinical Trials database, number EudraCT2010-021163-33; and the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN63733470 recruitment is complete and follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between July 15, 2011, and July 29, 2016, of 48 participants recruited, all were randomly assigned to cediranib (n=32) or placebo (n=16). 23 (48%) were female and the median age was 31 years (IQR 27-45). Median follow-up was 34á3 months (IQR 23á7-55á6) at the time of data cutoff for these analyses (April 11, 2018). Four participants in the cediranib group were not evaluable for the primary endpoint (one did not start treatment, and three did not have their scan at 24 weeks). Median percentage change in sum of target marker lesion diameters for the evaluable population was -8á3% (IQR -26á5 to 5á9) with cediranib versus 13á4% (IQR 1á1 to 21á3) with placebo (one-sided p=0á0010). The most common grade 3 adverse events on (blinded) cediranib were hypertension (six [19%] of 31) and diarrhoea (two [6%]). 15 serious adverse reactions in 12 patients were reported; 12 of these reactions occurred on open-label cediranib, and the most common symptoms were dehydration (n=2), vomiting (n=2), and proteinuria (n=2). One probable treatment-related death (intracranial haemorrhage) occurred 41 days after starting open-label cediranib in a patient who was assigned to placebo in the masked phase. INTERPRETATION: Given the high incidence of metastatic disease and poor long-term prognosis of ASPS, together with the lack of efficacy of conventional chemotherapy, our finding of significant clinical activity with cediranib in this disease is an important step towards the goal of long-term disease control for these young patients. Future clinical trials in ASPS are also likely to involve immune checkpoint inhibitors. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK and AstraZeneca.
    • Shared decision-making for patients with advanced urological malignancies: evaluation of a joint urological-oncological clinic model

      Betschart, P; Babst, C; Schmid, S; Rothermundt, C; Abt, D; Schwab, C; Gillessen, Silke; Engeler, DS; Klingbiel, D; Schmid, HP; et al. (2019)
      BACKGROUND: To provide rapid evaluation of patients with advanced urological malignancies, a joint urological-oncological clinic was initiated at our institution in January 2015. We present the first 3-year evaluation of this joint urological-oncological clinic in Switzerland. METHOD: We performed a retrospective analysis of the characteristics and treatment of all patients reviewed at the joint clinic between January 2015 and December 2017. Statistical analysis was performed by survival analysis. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was handed out to new patients (from April to September 2017). RESULTS: A total of 135 new patients were counseled in the joint clinic and 563 consultations were performed in the period from January 2015 to December 2017. The majority were men with prostate cancer (85%), followed by bladder cancer (9%), and renal cell carcinoma (4%). Men with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer (n = 69) received ADT alone (57%), ADT with docetaxel or abiraterone (33%), and metastasis-directed therapy (10%). High rates of patient satisfaction were reported based on the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The joint clinic model has been successfully implemented at our institution and continues on a weekly basis. The clinic is increasingly used, not only for newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer, but also for other complex uro-oncological cases. The clinic allows optimized oncological treatment without delay and with a reduced effort for patients.
    • Treatment-related toxicity using prostate-only versus prostate and pelvic lymph node intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a national population-based study

      Parry, MG; Sujenthiran, A; Cowling, TE; Nossiter, J; Cathcart, P; Clarke, Noel W; Payne, H; van der Meulen, J; Aggarwal, A; London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom (2019)
      PURPOSE: There is a debate about the effectiveness and toxicity of pelvic lymph node (PLN) irradiation for the treatment of men with high-risk prostate cancer. This study compared the toxicity of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the prostate and the pelvic lymph nodes (PPLN-IMRT) with prostate-only IMRT (PO-IMRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with high-risk localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with IMRT in the English National Health Service between 2010 and 2013 were identified by using data from the Cancer Registry, the National Radiotherapy Dataset, and Hospital Episode Statistics, an administrative database of all hospital admissions. Follow-up was available up to December 31, 2015. Validated indicators were used to identify patients with severe toxicity according to the presence of both a procedure code and diagnostic code in patient Hospital Episode Statistics records. A competing risks regression analysis, with adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics, estimated subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) by comparing GI and genitourinary (GU) complications for PPLN-IMRT versus PO-IMRT. RESULTS: Three-year cumulative incidence in the PPLN-IMRT (n = 780) and PO-IMRT (n = 3,065) groups was 14% for both groups for GI toxicity, and 9% and 8% for GU toxicity, respectively. Patients receiving PPLN-IMRT and PO-IMRT had similar levels of severe GI (adjusted sHR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.24; P = .97) and GU (adjusted sHR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.46; P = .50) toxicity rates. CONCLUSION: Including PLNs in radiation fields for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer is not associated with increased GI or GU toxicity at 3 years. Additional follow-up is required to answer questions about its impact on late GU toxicity. Results from ongoing trials will provide insight into the anticancer effectiveness of PLN irradiation.
    • Efficacy and safety of a bortezomib and reduced-intensity cytarabine-based protocol, TMC ALLR1, for relapsed childhood ALL in India

      Roy, P; Islam, R; Saha, D; Gogoi, M; Kumar, MD; Arora, N; Parihar, M; Krishnan, Shekhar; Saha, Vaskar; Department of Paediatric Haematology Oncology, Tata Translational Cancer Research Centre, Tata Medical Centre, Kolkata, India (2019)
      The feasibility of bortezomib (BZB) in induction and reduced cytarabine doses in intensification was evaluated in children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (rALL) at a single centre in India. Of 55 children with rALL, 23 received supportive care and 7 refused treatment, with a median survival of 2 (interquartile range 1-6) months. Twenty-two (88%) of 25 children who were treated achieved second remission and 9 (69%) of 13 had end-of-induction minimal residual disease of <10-4 . The lower cytarabine dose was associated with decreased hospitalisation. One-year event-free and overall survival for the treated group was 74á7% (95% confidence interval 52-88) and 79á6% (58-91) respectively.
    • Cosmetic assessment in brachytherapy (interventional radiotherapy) for breast cancer: a multidisciplinary review

      Tagliaferri, L; Lancellotta, V; Zinicola, T; Gentileschi, S; Sollena, P; Garganese, G; Guinot, J; Rembielak, Agata; Soror, T; Autorino, R; et al. (2019)
      PURPOSE: This review was to focus on breast brachytherapy cosmetic assessment methods state of the art and to define the advantages and disadvantages related to. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a literature review of the major experience on breast brachytherapy cosmetic assessment methods in several databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases). To identify the relevant works, a task force screened citations at title and abstract level to identify potentially relevant paper. An expert board reviewed and approved the text. The assessment systems were classified into three main groups: (1) the Oncological Toxicity Scales, (2) the Independent Patients Perspective Measures, (3) the Patient-Related Outcome Measures. Each cosmetic assessment method was evaluated following six parameters: (1) anatomical site, (2) advantages, (3) disadvantages, (4) subjective/objective, (5) quantitative/qualitative, (6) computers or pictures needs. RESULTS: Eleven assessment methods were selected. Three methods were classified as Oncological Toxicity Scale, six in the Independent Patients Perspective Measures classification, and two as Patient-Related Outcome Measures. Six methods are subjective, while eight are objective. Four systems are classified as quantitative, four as qualitative while three both. Five systems need informatics support. Moreover, each method was discussed individually reporting the main characteristics and peculiarities. CONCLUSIONS: Cosmesis is one major end point for the patient who has a malignancy of low lethal potential. In modern personalized medicine, there is a need for standardized cosmetic outcome assessments to analyze and compare the results of treatments. No gold standard methods currently exist. The result of this review is to summarize the various cosmesis methods, defining the strengths and weaknesses of each one and giving a line in research and clinical practice.
    • Data set for the reporting of carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter-nephroureterectomy and ureterectomy specimens: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR)

      Samaratunga, H; Judge, M; Delahunt, B; Srigley, J; Brimo, F; Comperat, E; Koch, M; Lopez-Beltran, A; Reuter, V; Shanks, Jonathan H; et al. (2019)
      Cancer reporting guidelines have been developed and utilized in many countries throughout the world. The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR), through an alliance of colleges and other pathology organizations in Australasia, United Kingdom, Ireland, Europe, USA, and Canada, has developed comprehensive standardized data sets to provide for global usage and promote uniformity in cancer reporting. Structured reporting facilitates provision of all necessary information, which ensures accurate and comprehensive data collection, with the ultimate aim of improving cancer diagnostics and treatment. The data set for primary carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter treated with nephroureterectomy or ureterectomy had input from an expert panel of international uropathologists. This data set was based on current evidence-based practice and incorporated information from the 2016 fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Bluebook on tumors of the urinary and male genital systems and the 2017 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging eighth edition. This protocol applies to both noninvasive and invasive carcinomas in these locations. Reporting elements are considered to be essential (required) or nonessential (recommended). Required elements include operative procedure, specimens submitted, tumor location, focality and size, histologic tumor type, subtype/variant of urothelial carcinoma, WHO grade, extent of invasion, presence or absence of vascular invasion, status of the resection margins and lymph nodes and pathologic stage. The data set provides a detailed template for the collection of data and it is anticipated that this will facilitate appropriate patient management with the potential to foster collaborative research internationally.
    • Success rate of resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

      Ho, A; Mizubuti, G; Ho, Adrienne K; Wan, S; Sydor, D; Chung, D; Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Queen's University, Canada (2019)
    • Development and validation of a combined hypoxia and immune prognostic classifier for head and neck cancer

      Brooks, J; Menezes, A; Ibrahim, M; Archer, L; Lal, N; Bagnall, C; von Zeidler, S; Valentine, H; Spruce, R; Batis, N; et al. (2019)
      Purpose: Intratumoral hypoxia and immunity have been correlated with patient outcome in various tumor settings. However, these factors are not currently considered for treatment selection in head and neck cancer (HNC) due to lack of validated biomarkers. Here we sought to develop a hypoxia-immune classifier with potential application in patient prognostication and prediction of response to targeted therapy.Experimental Design: A 54-gene hypoxia-immune signature was constructed on the basis of literature review. Gene expression was analyzed in silico using the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNC dataset (n = 275) and validated using two independent cohorts (n = 130 and 123). IHC was used to investigate the utility of a simplified protein signature. The spatial distribution of hypoxia and immune markers was examined using multiplex immunofluorescence staining.Results: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA dataset (development cohort) identified three patient subgroups with distinct hypoxia-immune phenotypes and survival profiles: hypoxialow/immunehigh, hypoxiahigh/immunelow, and mixed, with 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 71%, 51%, and 49%, respectively (P = 0.0015). The prognostic relevance of the hypoxia-immune gene signature was replicated in two independent validation cohorts. Only PD-L1 and intratumoral CD3 protein expression were associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis. Hypoxialow/immunehigh and hypoxiahigh/immunelow tumors were overrepresented in "inflamed" and "immune-desert" microenvironmental profiles, respectively. Multiplex staining demonstrated an inverse correlation between CA-IX expression and prevalence of intratumoral CD3+ T cells (r = -0.5464; P = 0.0377), further corroborating the transcription-based classification.Conclusions: We developed and validated a hypoxia-immune prognostic transcriptional classifier, which may have clinical application to guide the use of hypoxia modification and targeted immunotherapies for the treatment of HNC.
    • 6 versus 12 months of adjuvant trastuzumab for HER2-positive early breast cancer (PERSEPHONE): 4-year disease-free survival results of a randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial

      Earl, H; Hiller, L; Vallier, A; Loi, S; McAdam, K; Hughes-Davies, L; Harnett, A; Ah-See, M; Simcock, R; Rea, D; et al. (2019)
      BACKGROUND: Adjuvant trastuzumab significantly improves outcomes for patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer. The standard treatment duration is 12 months but shorter treatment could provide similar efficacy while reducing toxicities and cost. We aimed to investigate whether 6-month adjuvant trastuzumab treatment is non-inferior to the standard 12-month treatment regarding disease-free survival. METHODS: This study is an open-label, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Patients were recruited from 152 centres in the UK. We randomly assigned patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer, aged 18 years or older, and with a clear indication for chemotherapy, by a computerised minimisation process (1:1), to receive either 6-month or 12-month trastuzumab delivered every 3 weeks intravenously (loading dose of 8 mg/kg followed by maintenance doses of 6 mg/kg) or subcutaneously (600 mg), given in combination with chemotherapy (concurrently or sequentially). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, analysed by intention to treat, with a non-inferiority margin of 3% for 4-year disease-free survival. Safety was analysed in all patients who received trastuzumab. This trial is registered with EudraCT (number 2006-007018-39), ISRCTN (number 52968807), and ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00712140). FINDINGS: Between Oct 4, 2007, and July 31, 2015, 2045 patients were assigned to 12-month trastuzumab treatment and 2044 to 6-month treatment (one patient was excluded because they were double randomised). Median follow-up was 5á4 years (IQR 3á6-6á7) for both treatment groups, during which a disease-free survival event occurred in 265 (13%) of 2043 patients in the 6-month group and 247 (12%) of 2045 patients in the 12-month group. 4-year disease-free survival was 89á4% (95% CI 87á9-90á7) in the 6-month group and 89á8% (88á3-91á1) in the 12-month group (hazard ratio 1á07 [90% CI 0á93-1á24], non-inferiority p=0á011), showing non-inferiority of the 6-month treatment. 6-month trastuzumab treatment resulted in fewer patients reporting severe adverse events (373 [19%] of 1939 patients vs 459 [24%] of 1894 patients, p=0á0002) or stopping early because of cardiotoxicity (61 [3%] of 1939 patients vs 146 [8%] of 1894 patients, p<0á0001). INTERPRETATION: We have shown that 6-month trastuzumab treatment is non-inferior to 12-month treatment in patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer, with less cardiotoxicity and fewer severe adverse events. These results support consideration of reduced duration trastuzumab for women at similar risk of recurrence as to those included in the trial.
    • Antigen-specific immunotherapy with thyrotropin receptor peptides in Graves' hyperthyroidism: a phase I study

      Pearce, S; Dayan, C; Wraith, D; Barrell, K; Olive, N; Jansson, L; Walker-Smith, T; Carnegie, C; Martin, K; Boelaert, K; et al. (2019)
      Background: Graves' disease is one of the most common autoimmune conditions, but treatment remains imperfect. This study explores the first-in-human use of antigen-specific immunotherapy with a combination of two thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) peptides (termed ATX-GD-59) in Graves' hyperthyroidism. Methods: Twelve participants (11 female) with previously untreated mild to moderate Graves' hyperthyroidism were enrolled in a Phase I open label trial to receive 10 doses of ATX-GD-59 administered intradermally over an 18-week period. Adverse events, tolerability, changes in serum free thyroid hormones, and TSHR autoantibodies were measured. Results: Ten subjects received all 10 doses of ATX-GD-59, five (50%) of whom had free triiodothyronine within the reference interval by the 18-week visit. Two further subjects had improved free thyroid hormones by the end of the study (7/10 responders), whereas three subjects showed worsening thyrotoxicosis during the study. Serum TSHR autoantibody concentrations reduced during the study and correlated with changes in free thyroid hormones (r?=?0.85, p?=?0.002 for TSHR autoantibody vs. free triiodothyronine). Mild injection-site swelling and pain were the most common adverse events. Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that ATX-GD-59 is a safe and well-tolerated treatment. The improvement in free thyroid hormones in 70% of subjects receiving the medication suggests potential efficacy as a novel treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism.
    • Real-world effectiveness and safety of pazopanib in patients with intermediate prognostic risk advanced renal cell carcinoma

      Procopio, G; Bamias, A; Schmidinger, M; Hawkins, Robert E; Sanchez, A; Estevez, S; Srihari, N; Kalofonos, H; Bono, P; Pisal, C; et al. (2019)
      INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of pazopanib in patients with intermediate-risk advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the PRINCIPAL study (NCT01649778). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had clear-cell advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma and met intermediate-risk International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) criteria. Assessments included progression-free survival, overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. We also evaluated effectiveness based on number of risk factors, age, and performance status (PS), as well as safety in older and younger patients. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty three and 343 intermediate-risk MSKCC and IMDC patients were included, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 13.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.7-18.1 months) and 7.4 months (95% CI, 6.2-10.3 months) for patients with 1 and 2 MSKCC risk factors, respectively, and 13.1 months (95% CI, 10.7-18.1 months) and 8.1 months (95% CI, 6.4-10.7 months) for patients with 1 and 2 IMDC risk factors, respectively. The median overall survival was not reached and was 15.2 months (95% CI, 12.3-26.5 months) for patients with 1 and 2 MSKCC risk factors, respectively, and 33.9 months (95% CI, 33.9 months to not estimable) and 19.4 months (95% CI, 14.3 months to not estimable) with 1 and 2 IMDC risk factors, respectively. A lower overall response rate was observed with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS ³ 2 (vs. PS < 2). All-grade treatment-related adverse events occurred in approximately 63% of patients, and the safety profile among older and younger patients was similar. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes with pazopanib in intermediate-risk patients suggest that patients can be further stratified by number of risk factors (1 vs. 2) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS (< 2 vs. ³ 2) to more accurately predict outcomes.
    • Assessment of the spatial heterogeneity of breast cancers: associations between computed tomography and immunohistochemistry

      Woolf, David K; Li, S; Detre, S; Liu, A; Gogbashian, A; Simcock, I; Stirling, J; Kosmin, M; Cook, G; Siddique, M; et al. (2019)
      Background: Tumour heterogeneity is considered an important mechanism of treatment failure. Imaging-based assessment of tumour heterogeneity is showing promise but the relationship between these mathematically derived measures and accepted 'gold standards' of tumour biology such as immunohistochemical measures is not established. Methods: A total of 20 women with primary breast cancer underwent a research dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography prior to treatment with data being available for 15 of these. Texture analysis was performed of the primary tumours to extract 13 locoregional and global parameters. Immunohistochemical analysis associations were assessed by the Spearman rank correlation. Results: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? was correlated with first-order kurtosis (r?=?-0.533, P?=?.041) and higher order neighbourhood grey-tone difference matrix coarseness (r?=?0.54, P?=?.038). Vascular maturity-related smooth muscle actin was correlated with higher order grey-level run-length long-run emphasis (r?=?-0.52, P?=?.047), fractal dimension (r?=?0.613, P?=?.015), and lacunarity (r?=?-0.634, P?=?.011). Micro-vessel density, reflecting angiogenesis, was also associated with lacunarity (r?=?0.547, P?=?.035). Conclusions: The associations suggest a biological basis for these image-based heterogeneity features and support the use of imaging, already part of standard care, for assessing intratumoural heterogeneity
    • Challenge of the unknown: how can we improve clinical outcomes in cancer of unknown primary?

      Conway, Alicia-Marie; Mitchell, Claire L; Cook, Natalie; The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom (2019)
    • Prognostic and predictive value of AJCC-8 staging in the phase III EORTC1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial of pembrolizumab vs placebo in resected high-risk stage III melanoma

      Eggermont, A; Blank, C; Mandala, M; Long, G; Atkinson, V; Dalle, S; Haydon, A; Lichinitser, M; Khattak, A; Carlino, M; et al. (2019)
      BACKGROUND: The American Joint Committee on Cancer-8 (AJCC) classification of melanoma was implemented in January 2018. It was based on data gathered when checkpoint inhibitors were not used as adjuvant therapy in stage III melanoma. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325/KEYNOTE-054 double-blind phase III trial evaluated pembrolizumab vs placebo in AJCC-7 stage IIIA (excluding lymph node metastasis ²1 mm), IIIB or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis) patients after complete lymphadenectomy. PATIENTS, METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n = 1019) were randomised 1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo every 3 weeks (total of 18 doses, ?1 year). At 1.25-year median follow-up, pembrolizumab prolonged relapse-free survival (RFS) in the total population (1-year RFS rate: 75.4% vs 61.0%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.57; logrank P < 0.0001) and consistently in the AJCC-7 subgroups. Prognostic and predictive values of AJCC-8 for RFS were evaluated in this study. Patient distribution according to the AJCC-8 stage subgroups was 8% (IIIA), 34.7% (IIIB), 49.7% (IIIC), 3.7% (IIID) and 3.8% (unknown). AJCC-8 classification was strongly associated with RFS (HRs for stage IIIB, IIIC and IIID vs IIIA were 4.0, 5.7 and 12.2, respectively) but showed no predictive importance for the treatment comparison regarding RFS (test for interaction: P = 0.68). The 1-year RFS rate for pembrolizumab vs placebo and the HRs (99% confidence interval) within each AJCC-8 subgroup were as follows: stage IIIA (92.7% vs 92.5%; 0.76 [0.11-5.43]), IIIB (79.0% vs 65.5%; 0.59 [0.35-0.99]), IIIC (73.6% vs 53.9%; 0.48 [0.33-0.70]) and IIID (50.0% vs 33.3%; 0.69 [0.24-2.00]). CONCLUSIONS: AJCC-8 staging had a strong prognostic importance for RFS but no predictive importance: the RFS benefit of pembrolizumab was observed across AJCC-8 subgroups in resected high-risk stage III melanoma patients.