• Lapatinib and trastuzumab in combination with an aromatase inhibitor for the first-line treatment of metastatic hormone receptor-positive breast cancer which over-expresses human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2): a systematic review and economic analysis.

      Fleeman, N; Bagust, A; Boland, A; Dickson, R; Dundar, Y; Moonan, M; Oyee, J; Blundell, M; Davis, H; Armstrong, Anne C; et al. (2011)
      Breast cancer is the uncontrolled, abnormal growth of malignant breast tissue affecting predominantly women. Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is an advanced stage of the disease when the disease has spread beyond the original organ. Hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status are two predictive factors that are taken into consideration when estimating the prognosis of patients with breast cancer.
    • Management of vertebral radiotherapy dose in paediatric patients with cancer: consensus recommendations from the SIOPE radiotherapy working group

      Hoeben, B; Carrie, C; Timmermann, B; Mandeville, H; Gandola, L; Dieckmann, K; Ramos, A; Magelssen, H; Lassen-Ramshad, Y; Ondrova, B; et al. (2019)
      Inhomogeneities in radiotherapy dose distributions covering the vertebrae in children can produce long-term spinal problems, including kyphosis, lordosis, scoliosis, and hypoplasia. In the published literature, many often interrelated variables have been reported to affect the extent of potential radiotherapy damage to the spine. Articles published in the 2D and 3D radiotherapy era instructed radiation oncologists to avoid dose inhomogeneity over growing vertebrae. However, in the present era of highly conformal radiotherapy, steep dose gradients over at-risk structures can be generated and thus less harm is caused to patients. In this report, paediatric radiation oncologists from leading centres in 11 European countries have produced recommendations on how to approach dose coverage for target volumes that are adjacent to vertebrae to minimise the risk of long-term spinal problems. Based on available information, it is advised that homogeneous vertebral radiotherapy doses should be delivered in children who have not yet finished the pubertal growth spurt. If dose fall-off within vertebrae cannot be avoided, acceptable dose gradients for different age groups are detailed here. Vertebral delineation should include all primary ossification centres and growth plates, and therefore include at least the vertebral body and arch. For partial spinal radiotherapy, the number of irradiated vertebrae should be restricted as much as achievable, particularly at the thoracic level in young children (<6 years old). There is a need for multicentre research on vertebral radiotherapy dose distributions for children, but until more valid data become available, these recommendations can provide a basis for daily practice for radiation oncologists who have patients that require vertebral radiotherapy.
    • Service Evaluation of Early Outcomes and Toxicity for Paediatric Intracranial Ependymomas Treated Within the UK Proton Beam Therapy Overseas Programme

      Gains, J; Indelicato, D; Chang, A; Confer, M; Thorp, N; Chang, Y; Smith, Ed; Hackshaw, A; Crellin, A; University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (2016-06-12)
    • The Siop II Ependymoma Multi-Disciplinary Advisory Group (EMAG): the UK Approach

      Storer, L; Ritzmann, T; Chapman, R; Hanson, M; Jaspan, T; Dineen, R; Avula, S; Stivaros, S; MacArthur, D; Mallucci, C; et al. (2016-06-12)