• Acromegaly and colorectal cancer: a comprehensive review of epidemiology, biological mechanisms, and clinical implications.

      Renehan, Andrew G; O'Connell, J; O'Halloran, Domhnall J; Shanahan, F; Potten, Christopher S; O'Dwyer, Sarah T; Shalet, Stephen M; Department of Surgery, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK. arenehan@picr.man.ac.uk (2009-08-27)
      Acromegaly is an endocrine disorder characterised by sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) with concomitant elevation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and is associated with malignancy and premature mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. In particular, there may be an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, but the exact extent of this is contentious. Colonoscopy-based studies of adenoma prevalence rates in acromegalic patients are misleading, but population-based studies on colorectal cancer risk are more consistent - a meta-analysis estimated a pooled risk ratio of 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.32, 3.14). Possible mechanisms underlying this increased risk include direct actions as a consequence of elevated levels of circulating GH and IGF-I and/or other perturbations within the IGF system. Other possible mechanisms include altered bile acid secretion, altered cellular immunity, hyperinsulinaemia, shared genetic susceptibility and increased bowel length. However, most explanations only offer indirect evidence, and the expectation of acromegaly as a natural model of colorectal carcinogenesis has not materialised. From a clinical perspective, it seems reasonable to consider a once-only colonoscopic screening at approximately age 55 years, but potential risks and benefits should be balanced.
    • Randomized Phase II Study of Dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an Irreversible Pan-Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor, Versus Erlotinib in Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

      Ramalingam, S S; Blackhall, Fiona H; Krzakowski, M; Barrios, C H; Park, K; Bover, I; Seog Heo, D; Rosell, R; Talbot, D C; Frank, R; et al. (2012-09-20)
      PURPOSE This randomized, open-label trial compared dacomitinib (PF-00299804), an irreversible inhibitor of human epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR)/HER1, HER2, and HER4, with erlotinib, a reversible EGFR inhibitor, in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with NSCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 to 2, no prior HER-directed therapy, and one/two prior chemotherapy regimens received dacomitinib 45 mg or erlotinib 150 mg once daily. Results One hundred eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned. Treatment arms were balanced for most clinical and molecular characteristics. Median progression-free survival (PFS; primary end point) was 2.86 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 1.91 months for patients treated with erlotinib (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.91; two-sided P = .012); in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors, median PFS was 3.71 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 1.91 months for patients treated with erlotinib (HR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.85; two-sided P = .006); and in patients with KRAS wild-type/EGFR wild-type tumors, median PFS was 2.21 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 1.84 months for patients treated with erlotinib (HR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.99; two-sided P = .043). Median overall survival was 9.53 months for patients treated with dacomitinib and 7.44 months for patients treated with erlotinib (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.13; two-sided P = .205). Adverse event-related discontinuations were uncommon in both arms. Common treatment-related adverse events were dermatologic and gastrointestinal, predominantly grade 1 to 2, and more frequent with dacomitinib. CONCLUSION Dacomitinib demonstrated significantly improved PFS versus erlotinib, with acceptable toxicity. PFS benefit was observed in most clinical and molecular subsets, notably KRAS wild-type/EGFR any status, KRAS wild-type/EGFR wild-type, and EGFR mutants.