• A clinical study of type 2 neurofibromatosis.

      Evans, D Gareth R; Huson, S M; Donnai, D; Neary, W; Blair, Val; Newton, V; Harris, R; Department of Medical Genetics, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK. (1992-08)
      The clinical features, age at onset of symptoms and survival of 150 patients with type 2 neurofibromatosis were studied. The mean age at onset was 21.57 years (n = 110) and no patients presented after 55 years of age. Patients presented with symptoms attributable to vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuroma), cranial meningiomas and spinal tumours. In 100 patients studied personally by the authors 44 per cent presented with deafness and this was unilateral in the majority (35/44). Deafness was accompanied by tinnitus in a further 10 per cent and muscle weakness or wasting was the first symptom in 12 per cent. Less common presenting symptoms were seizures (8 per cent), vertigo (8 per cent) numbness and tingling (2 per cent) and blindness (1 per cent). Eleven patients were diagnosed asymptomatically through screening. Café au lait spots occurred in 43 per cent (n = 43) but only one case had six. Skin tumours were detected in 68 per cent (68/100) and 38 per cent (34/90) had an identifiable lens opacity or cataract. The mean age at death in 40 cases was 36.25 years and all but one death was a result of a complication of neurofibromatosis. There are marked inter-family differences in disease severity and tumour susceptibility.
    • A genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis in the United Kingdom. I. Prevalence, mutation rate, fitness, and confirmation of maternal transmission effect on severity.

      Evans, D Gareth R; Huson, S M; Donnai, D; Neary, W; Blair, Val; Teare, M Dawn; Newton, V; Strachan, T; Ramsden, R; Harris, R; et al. (1992-12)
      A clinical and genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) has been carried out in the United Kingdom. Virtually complete ascertainment of cases in the north-west of England was achieved and suggests a population incidence of 1 in 33,000 to 40,000. In the UK as a whole, 150 cases have been identified and been used to study the clinical and genetic features of NF2. The autosomal dominant inheritance of NF2 was confirmed, 49% of cases were assessed as representing new mutations, and the mutation rate was estimated to be 6.5 x 10(-6). Evidence to support a maternal gene effect was found in that age at onset was 18.17 years in 36 maternally inherited cases and 24.5 in 20 paternally inherited cases (p = 0.027). The preponderance of maternally inherited cases was also significant (p = 0.03). Data are presented which suggest that there are two types of NF2, one with later onset and bilateral vestibular schwannomas as the only usual feature, and the other with earlier onset and multiple other tumours. A considerable number of cases did not fall easily into one or other group and other factors such as maternal effect on severity and anticipation need to be considered.
    • A genetic study of type 2 neurofibromatosis in the United Kingdom. II. Guidelines for genetic counselling.

      Evans, D Gareth R; Huson, S M; Donnai, D; Neary, W; Blair, Val; Newton, V; Strachan, T; Harris, R; Department of Medical Genetics, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester. (1992-12)
      The major defining features, age at onset of symptoms, and survival in 150 patients with type 2 neurofibromatosis (NF2) have been studied. The mean age at onset was 21.57 years (n = 110) and no cases presented after 55 years of age. Patients presented with symptoms attributable to vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuroma), cranial meningiomas, and spinal tumours. In 97 cases studied personally by the authors, skin and eye examination were found to be useful to detect early signs of the condition. Examination of the skin is likely to assist in early diagnosis in at least 10% of cases and examination of the eye for a lens opacity or cataract in at least as many again. There are marked interfamilial differences in disease severity and tumour susceptibility. Vestibular schwannomas are not fully penetrant, but the condition is usually expressed in another way. Alteration to the current diagnostic criteria is advocated to cover the lack of provision for new mutations. A screening protocol is proposed and the effect of disease heterogeneity on management is discussed.