Differential cytotoxic response in keloid fibroblasts exposed to photodynamic therapy is dependent on photosensitiser precursor, fluence and location of fibroblasts within the lesion.
AffiliationPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery Research, School of Translational Medicine, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology (MIB), The University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.
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AbstractTreatment of keloid disease (KD) is ill-defined and remains challenging. We previously reported successful clinical application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in KD. The aim here was to evaluate cytotoxic effect of PDT using methyl aminolevulinate (M-ALA) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on keloid fibroblasts (KF) (n = 8) from different lesional sites (top, middle and margin) as compared to normal skin fibroblasts (n = 3). The effect of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursors was evaluated by fluorescence emission, LDH and WST-1 assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and qRT-PCR analysis. Apoptosis/necrosis differentiation and senescence were studied by fluorometric staining with Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide and β-galactosidase activity, respectively. Three hours post incubation with 4 mM precursors of photosensitisers, PpIX accumulation was site specific and higher with M-ALA. Cytotoxicity was also site specific (higher in fibroblasts from middle of the keloid as compared to cells from other sites) and increased proportionately to fluence rates post-PDT. Additionally, cytoproliferation was significantly decreased post-PDT depending on the light energy. Fluorescence analysis revealed that M-ALA instigated higher KF cytotoxicity at lower fluence (≤20 J/cm(2)) while 5-ALA instigated higher KF cytotoxicity at higher fluence, except in cells derived from middle of the keloid. ROS-mediated cytotoxicity was light energy dependent. Senescence was not observed at higher light energies (>10 J/cm(2)). Compared to other sites, fibroblasts from the middle were more prone to cell death post 5-ALA treatment. We conclude that cytotoxicity post-PDT in KD fibroblasts is dependent on the lesional site, precursor of intracellular photosensitiser and fluence. Thus, PDT may be used for site-targeted therapy of KD.
CitationDifferential cytotoxic response in keloid fibroblasts exposed to photodynamic therapy is dependent on photosensitiser precursor, fluence and location of fibroblasts within the lesion. 2012, 304 (7):549-62 Arch Dermatol Res
JournalArchives of Dermatological Research
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