Growth hormone, the insulin-like growth factor axis, insulin and cancer risk.
AffiliationManchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK. email@example.com
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractGrowth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and insulin have potent growth-promoting and anabolic actions. Their potential involvement in tumor promotion and progression has been of concern for several decades. The evidence that GH, IGF-I and insulin can promote and contribute to cancer progression comes from various sources, including transgenic and knockout mouse models and animal and human cell lines derived from cancers. Assessments of the GH-IGF axis in healthy individuals followed up to assess cancer incidence provide direct evidence of this risk; raised IGF-I levels in blood are associated with a slightly increased risk of some cancers. Studies of human diseases characterized by excess growth factor secretion or treated with growth factors have produced reassuring data, with no notable increases in de novo cancers in children treated with GH. Although follow-up for the vast majority of these children does not yet extend beyond young adulthood, a slight increase in cancers in those with long-standing excess GH secretion (as seen in patients with acromegaly) and no overall increase in cancer with insulin treatment, have been observed. Nevertheless, long-term surveillance for cancer incidence in all populations exposed to increased levels of GH is vitally important.
CitationGrowth hormone, the insulin-like growth factor axis, insulin and cancer risk. 2011, 7 (1):11-24 Nat Rev Endocrinol
JournalNature Reviews: Endocrinology
- Does the GH-IGF axis play a role in cancer pathogenesis?
- Authors: Cohen P, Clemmons DR, Rosenfeld RG
- Issue date: 2000 Dec
- The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis in glycogen storage disease type 1: evidence of different growth patterns and insulin-like growth factor levels in patients with glycogen storage disease type 1a and 1b.
- Authors: Melis D, Pivonello R, Parenti G, Della Casa R, Salerno M, Balivo F, Piccolo P, Di Somma C, Colao A, Andria G
- Issue date: 2010 Apr
- Modulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor (GH-IGF) axis by pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and environmental xenobiotics: an emerging role for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and the transcription factors regulating their expression. A review.
- Authors: Scarth JP
- Issue date: 2006 Feb-Mar
- The growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH)-GH-somatomedin axis: evidence for rapid inhibition of GHRH-elicited GH release by insulin-like growth factors I and II.
- Authors: Ceda GP, Davis RG, Rosenfeld RG, Hoffman AR
- Issue date: 1987 Apr