Lysis of fresh human tumour cells by autologous tumour-associated lymphocytes: Two distinct types of autologous tumour killer cells induced by co-culture with autologous tumour
AffiliationDivision of Immunology, Paterson Laboratories, Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Institute, Manchester M20 9BX, England.
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CitationLysis of fresh human tumour cells by autologous tumour-associated lymphocytes: Two distinct types of autologous tumour killer cells induced by co-culture with autologous tumour 1985, 20 (1) Cancer Immuno Immunother
JournalCancer Immunology Immunotherapy
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Immunohistochemical study of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors, including staining with anti-inhibin antibody.McCluggage, W G; Shanks, Jonathan H; Whiteside, C; Maxwell, P; Banerjee, Saumitra S; Biggart, J D; Department of Pathology, Royal Group of Hospitals Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland. (1998-05)Inhibin is a peptide hormone produced by ovarian granulosa cells and testicular Sertoli cells. Ovarian granulosa cell and other sex cord-stromal tumors usually exhibit positive immunohistochemical staining with antiinhibin antibodies, and this may be valuable in differentiating these neoplasms from histologic mimics. In the present study, we investigated the immunohistochemical staining of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors using antiinhibin. Immunostaining with CAM5.2, vimentin, S-100 protein, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) also was performed because few studies have investigated in detail the immunophenotype of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Fifteen of 16 Leydig cell tumors exhibited strong positive staining with antiinhibin. A proportion of Leydig cell tumors also stained positively with CAM5.2 (7 of 16), vimentin (14 of 16), S-100 protein (10 of 16), desmin (2 of 16) and epithelial membrane antigen (4 of 16). Four of six testicular sex cord-stromal tumors with varying degrees of Sertoli or granulosa cell differentiation were positive with antiinhibin, as were two of three sex cord-stromal tumors that were unclassified. Some of these tumors were positive with CAM 5.2, vimentin, S-100 protein, desmin, and epithelial membrane antigen. All tumors were negative with carcinoembryonic antigen and placental alkaline phosphatase. The immunohistochemical findings show that, analogous to their ovarian counterparts, most testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are immunoreactive with antiinhibin. Immunohistochemistry using this antibody as part of a panel may be valuable in confirming a diagnosis of testicular sex cord-stromal tumor and in differentiating these neoplasms from others that may mimic them.
TSLC1 gene silencing in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical neoplasia.Steenbergen, R D; Kramer, D; Braakhuis, B J; Stern, Peter L; Verheijen, René H; Meijer, C J; Snijders, P J; Department of Pathology, Unit of Molecular Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org (2004-02-18)BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinogenesis is initiated by infection with high-risk (i.e., carcinogenic) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. The subsequent progression from premalignant cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to invasive cancer is driven by both genetic and epigenetic processes. We assessed the role of the gene encoding the adhesion molecule tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) in this progression. METHODS: We analyzed TSLC1 gene expression by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, promoter methylation by sodium bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing, and allelic loss by microsatellite analysis in primary keratinocytes, in four non-tumorigenic HPV-immortalized human keratinocyte cell lines, and in 11 human cervical cancer cell lines that were positive for a high-risk HPV DNA type and in normal cervical epithelial cells. We transfected cervical cancer SiHa cells that did not express TSLC1 mRNA with an expression vector containing the TSLC1 complementary DNA (cDNA) or an empty vector and analyzed transfectants for anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We also examined TSLC1 promoter methylation in premalignant cervical lesions and in cervical carcinomas and smears. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: TSLC1 mRNA was strongly reduced, relative to levels in primary keratinocytes, or absent in 10 (91%) of 11 cervical carcinoma cell lines but in none (0%) of the four HPV-immortalized cell lines (difference = 91%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74% to 100%; P =.004). The TSLC1 promoter was hypermethylated, relative to normal foreskin and cervical epithelial cells, in nine (82%) of the 11 cervical carcinoma cell lines but in none (0%) of the four HPV-immortalized cell lines (difference = 82%, 95 CI = 59% to 100%; P =.01). Seven (88%, 95% CI = 47% to 100%) of the eight SiHa/TSLC1 transfectants displayed a marked reduction in anchorage-independent growth (i.e., 0-100 colonies per 5000 cells) compared with none of the four (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 60%) SiHa transfectants bearing the empty vector (i.e., SiHa/hygro transfectants; difference = 88%, 95% CI = 65% to 100%; P =.01) or untransfected SiHa cells. All seven mice (100%, 95% CI = 59% to 100%) injected with untransfected SiHa cells or SiHa/hygro transfectants displayed tumors of at least 50 mm(3) by 2-6 weeks after injection compared with none of eight mice (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 37%) injected with the SiHa/TSLC1 transfectants (difference = 100%, 95% CI = 68% to 100%; P<.001). We detected TSLC1 promoter hypermethylation in seven (35%, 95% CI = 15% to 59%) of 20 high-grade CIN lesions (i.e., CIN II and III) and in 30 (58%, 95% CI = 43% to 71%) of 52 cervical squamous cell carcinomas compared with none (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 34%) of nine normal cervical epithelial biopsy samples and none (0%, 95% CI = 0% to 22%) of 12 CIN I lesions (P<.001 for cervical squamous cell cancer versus normal epithelial biopsy samples plus CIN I lesions). CONCLUSIONS: TSLC1 gene silencing via promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in the progression from high-risk HPV-containing, high-grade CIN lesions to invasive cervical cancer.
MRE11 expression is predictive of cause-specific survival following radical radiotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.Choudhury, Ananya; Nelson, L D; Teo, M T W; Chilka, S; Bhattarai, S; Johnston, C F; Elliott, F; Lowery, J; Taylor, C F; Churchman, M; et al. (2010-09-15)Radical radiotherapy and surgery achieve similar cure rates in muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but the choice of which treatment would be most beneficial cannot currently be predicted for individual patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether expression of any of a panel of DNA damage signaling proteins in tumor samples taken before irradiation could be used as a predictive marker of radiotherapy response, or rather was prognostic. Protein expression of MRE11, RAD50, NBS1, ATM, and H2AX was studied by immunohistochemistry in pretreatment tumor specimens from two cohorts of bladder cancer patients (validation cohort prospectively acquired) treated with radical radiotherapy and one cohort of cystectomy patients. In the radiotherapy test cohort (n = 86), low tumor MRE11 expression was associated with worse cancer-specific survival compared with high expression [43.1% versus 68.7% 3-year cause-specific survival (CSS), P = 0.012] by Kaplan-Meier analysis. This was confirmed in the radiotherapy validation cohort (n = 93; 43.0% versus 71.2%, P = 0.020). However, in the cystectomy cohort (n = 88), MRE11 expression was not associated with cancer-specific survival, commensurate with MRE11 being a predictive marker. High MRE11 expression in the combined radiotherapy cohort had a significantly better cancer-specific survival compared with the high-expression cystectomy cohort (69.9% versus 53.8% 3-year CSS, P = 0.021). In this validated immunohistochemistry study, MRE11 protein expression was shown and confirmed as a predictive factor associated with survival following bladder cancer radiotherapy, justifying its inclusion in subsequent trial designs. MRE11 expression may ultimately allow patient selection for radiotherapy or cystectomy, thus improving overall cure rates.