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dc.contributor.authorPavlides, S
dc.contributor.authorTsirigos, A
dc.contributor.authorMigneco, G
dc.contributor.authorWhitaker-Menezes, D
dc.contributor.authorChiavarina, B
dc.contributor.authorFlomenberg, N
dc.contributor.authorFrank, P G
dc.contributor.authorCasimiro, M C
dc.contributor.authorWang, C
dc.contributor.authorPestell, R G
dc.contributor.authorMartinez-Outschoorn, U E
dc.contributor.authorHowell, Anthony
dc.contributor.authorSotgia, Federica
dc.contributor.authorLisanti, Michael P
dc.date.accessioned2010-11-17T16:22:14Z
dc.date.available2010-11-17T16:22:14Z
dc.date.issued2010-09
dc.identifier.citationThe autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer: Role of oxidative stress and ketone production in fueling tumor cell metabolism. 2010, 9 (17):3485-505 Cell Cycleen
dc.identifier.issn1551-4005
dc.identifier.pmid20861672
dc.identifier.doi10.4161/cc.9.17.12721
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10541/115747
dc.description.abstractA loss of stromal Cav-1 in the tumor fibroblast compartment is associated with early tumor recurrence, lymph-node metastasis, and tamoxifen-resistance, resulting in poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Here, we have used Cav-1 (-/-) null mice as a pre-clinical model for this "lethal tumor micro-environment." Metabolic profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) mammary fat pads revealed the upregulation of numerous metabolites (nearly 100), indicative of a major catabolic phenotype. Our results are consistent with the induction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy/mitophagy. The two most prominent metabolites that emerged from this analysis were ADMA (asymmetric dimethyl arginine) and BHB (beta-hydroxybutyrate; a ketone body), which are markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, respectively. Transcriptional profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells and human tumor stroma from breast cancer patients directly supported an association with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy/mitophagy, as well as ADMA and ketone production. MircoRNA profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells revealed the upregulation of two key cancer-related miR's, namely miR-31 and miR-34c. Consistent with our metabolic findings, these miR's are associated with oxidative stress (miR-34c) or activation of the hypoxic response/HIF1a (miR-31), which is sufficient to drive authophagy/mitophagy. Thus, via an unbiased comprehensive analysis of a lethal tumor micro-environment, we have identified a number of candidate biomarkers (ADMA, ketones, and miR-31/34c) that could be used to identify high-risk cancer patients at diagnosis, for treatment stratification and/or for evaluating therapeutic efficacy during anti-cancer therapy. We propose that the levels of these key biomarkers (ADMA, ketones/BHB, miR-31, and miR-34c) could be (1) assayed using serum or plasma from cancer patients, or (2) performed directly on excised tumor tissue. Importantly, induction of oxidative stress and autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor stromal compartment provides a means by which epithelial cancer cells can directly "feed off" of stromal-derived essential nutrients, chemical building blocks (amino acids, nucleotides), and energy-rich metabolites (glutamine, pyruvate, ketones/BHB), driving tumor progression and metastasis. Essentially, aggressive cancer cells are "eating" the cancer-associated fibroblasts via autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor micro-environment. Lastly, we discuss that this "Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Metabolism" provides a viable solution to the "Autophagy Paradox" in cancer etiology and chemo-therapy.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectCaveolin-1en
dc.subjectAutophagyen
dc.subjectMitophagyen
dc.subjectThe Warburg Effecten
dc.titleThe autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer: Role of oxidative stress and ketone production in fueling tumor cell metabolism.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.en
dc.identifier.journalCell Cycleen
html.description.abstractA loss of stromal Cav-1 in the tumor fibroblast compartment is associated with early tumor recurrence, lymph-node metastasis, and tamoxifen-resistance, resulting in poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Here, we have used Cav-1 (-/-) null mice as a pre-clinical model for this "lethal tumor micro-environment." Metabolic profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) mammary fat pads revealed the upregulation of numerous metabolites (nearly 100), indicative of a major catabolic phenotype. Our results are consistent with the induction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy/mitophagy. The two most prominent metabolites that emerged from this analysis were ADMA (asymmetric dimethyl arginine) and BHB (beta-hydroxybutyrate; a ketone body), which are markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, respectively. Transcriptional profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells and human tumor stroma from breast cancer patients directly supported an association with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy/mitophagy, as well as ADMA and ketone production. MircoRNA profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells revealed the upregulation of two key cancer-related miR's, namely miR-31 and miR-34c. Consistent with our metabolic findings, these miR's are associated with oxidative stress (miR-34c) or activation of the hypoxic response/HIF1a (miR-31), which is sufficient to drive authophagy/mitophagy. Thus, via an unbiased comprehensive analysis of a lethal tumor micro-environment, we have identified a number of candidate biomarkers (ADMA, ketones, and miR-31/34c) that could be used to identify high-risk cancer patients at diagnosis, for treatment stratification and/or for evaluating therapeutic efficacy during anti-cancer therapy. We propose that the levels of these key biomarkers (ADMA, ketones/BHB, miR-31, and miR-34c) could be (1) assayed using serum or plasma from cancer patients, or (2) performed directly on excised tumor tissue. Importantly, induction of oxidative stress and autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor stromal compartment provides a means by which epithelial cancer cells can directly "feed off" of stromal-derived essential nutrients, chemical building blocks (amino acids, nucleotides), and energy-rich metabolites (glutamine, pyruvate, ketones/BHB), driving tumor progression and metastasis. Essentially, aggressive cancer cells are "eating" the cancer-associated fibroblasts via autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor micro-environment. Lastly, we discuss that this "Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Metabolism" provides a viable solution to the "Autophagy Paradox" in cancer etiology and chemo-therapy.


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