The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer: Role of oxidative stress and ketone production in fueling tumor cell metabolism.
Frank, P G
Casimiro, M C
Pestell, R G
Martinez-Outschoorn, U E
Lisanti, Michael P
AffiliationDepartment of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractA loss of stromal Cav-1 in the tumor fibroblast compartment is associated with early tumor recurrence, lymph-node metastasis, and tamoxifen-resistance, resulting in poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Here, we have used Cav-1 (-/-) null mice as a pre-clinical model for this "lethal tumor micro-environment." Metabolic profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) mammary fat pads revealed the upregulation of numerous metabolites (nearly 100), indicative of a major catabolic phenotype. Our results are consistent with the induction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy/mitophagy. The two most prominent metabolites that emerged from this analysis were ADMA (asymmetric dimethyl arginine) and BHB (beta-hydroxybutyrate; a ketone body), which are markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, respectively. Transcriptional profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells and human tumor stroma from breast cancer patients directly supported an association with oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy/mitophagy, as well as ADMA and ketone production. MircoRNA profiling of Cav-1 (-/-) stromal cells revealed the upregulation of two key cancer-related miR's, namely miR-31 and miR-34c. Consistent with our metabolic findings, these miR's are associated with oxidative stress (miR-34c) or activation of the hypoxic response/HIF1a (miR-31), which is sufficient to drive authophagy/mitophagy. Thus, via an unbiased comprehensive analysis of a lethal tumor micro-environment, we have identified a number of candidate biomarkers (ADMA, ketones, and miR-31/34c) that could be used to identify high-risk cancer patients at diagnosis, for treatment stratification and/or for evaluating therapeutic efficacy during anti-cancer therapy. We propose that the levels of these key biomarkers (ADMA, ketones/BHB, miR-31, and miR-34c) could be (1) assayed using serum or plasma from cancer patients, or (2) performed directly on excised tumor tissue. Importantly, induction of oxidative stress and autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor stromal compartment provides a means by which epithelial cancer cells can directly "feed off" of stromal-derived essential nutrients, chemical building blocks (amino acids, nucleotides), and energy-rich metabolites (glutamine, pyruvate, ketones/BHB), driving tumor progression and metastasis. Essentially, aggressive cancer cells are "eating" the cancer-associated fibroblasts via autophagy/mitophagy in the tumor micro-environment. Lastly, we discuss that this "Autophagic Tumor Stroma Model of Cancer Metabolism" provides a viable solution to the "Autophagy Paradox" in cancer etiology and chemo-therapy.
CitationThe autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer: Role of oxidative stress and ketone production in fueling tumor cell metabolism. 2010, 9 (17):3485-505 Cell Cycle
- Autophagy in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes tumor cell survival: Role of hypoxia, HIF1 induction and NFκB activation in the tumor stromal microenvironment.
- Authors: Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Trimmer C, Lin Z, Whitaker-Menezes D, Chiavarina B, Zhou J, Wang C, Pavlides S, Martinez-Cantarin MP, Capozza F, Witkiewicz AK, Flomenberg N, Howell A, Pestell RG, Caro J, Lisanti MP, Sotgia F
- Issue date: 2010 Sep 1
- Oxidative stress in cancer associated fibroblasts drives tumor-stroma co-evolution: A new paradigm for understanding tumor metabolism, the field effect and genomic instability in cancer cells.
- Authors: Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Balliet RM, Rivadeneira DB, Chiavarina B, Pavlides S, Wang C, Whitaker-Menezes D, Daumer KM, Lin Z, Witkiewicz AK, Flomenberg N, Howell A, Pestell RG, Knudsen ES, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP
- Issue date: 2010 Aug 15
- Molecular profiling of a lethal tumor microenvironment, as defined by stromal caveolin-1 status in breast cancers.
- Authors: Witkiewicz AK, Kline J, Queenan M, Brody JR, Tsirigos A, Bilal E, Pavlides S, Ertel A, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP
- Issue date: 2011 Jun 1
- Metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts by TGF-β drives tumor growth: connecting TGF-β signaling with "Warburg-like" cancer metabolism and L-lactate production.
- Authors: Guido C, Whitaker-Menezes D, Capparelli C, Balliet R, Lin Z, Pestell RG, Howell A, Aquila S, Andò S, Martinez-Outschoorn U, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP
- Issue date: 2012 Aug 15
- The autophagic tumor stroma model of cancer or "battery-operated tumor growth": A simple solution to the autophagy paradox.
- Authors: Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Whitaker-Menezes D, Pavlides S, Chiavarina B, Bonuccelli G, Casey T, Tsirigos A, Migneco G, Witkiewicz A, Balliet R, Mercier I, Wang C, Flomenberg N, Howell A, Lin Z, Caro J, Pestell RG, Sotgia F, Lisanti MP
- Issue date: 2010 Nov 1