Welcome to The Christie Research Publications Repository

The repository contains the research outputs from staff and students at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust and Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute.

Current Repository Content:

Over 7000 peer reviewed articles, reviews and selected publications from 1933 onwards.

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  • AXL inhibition extinguishes primitive JAK2 mutated myeloproliferative neoplasm progenitor cells

    Pearson, S; Blance, R; Somervaille, Tim CP; Whetton, AD; Pierce, A; Stem Cell and Leukaemia Proteomics Laboratory, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, UK (2019)
    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal stem cell associated disorders inclusive of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), Polycythaemia vera (PV), myelofibrosis (MF), and essential thrombocythemia (ET). They are characterized by increased production of myeloid cells with minimal effects on terminal differentiation but can undergo transformation to acute leukemias. PV is the most common chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm and in the majority of cases is characterized by a V617F point mutation in JAK2. This JAK2 activating mutation is also found in about half the patients with MF and ET. Such aberrant proteins offer great potential for the treatment of these diseases however inhibitors to JAK2 have had limited success in the clinic in terms of curing the disease. We have previously used advanced proteomic techniques to identify drug targets and thus develop novel treatment strategies to distinguish the leukemic clone in both CML and PV. Here, we build on our proteomic data sets to characterize a new target, the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL. AXL is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia and importantly small molecule inhibitors have been developed which are currently in clinical trial hence offer the opportunity to repurpose this drug for the treatment of MPNs. We demonstrate that AXL is upregulated and activated in JAK2 associated MPNs. Further we show that inhibition of AXL preferentially kills early hemopoietic stem cells from PV patients and as such represents a promising therapeutic approach for JAK2 driven MPNs
  • Outcome of weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based definitive chemoradiation in oesophageal cancer in patients not considered to be suitable for platinum-fluoropyrimidine-based treatment: a multicentre, retrospective review

    Owens, R; Cox, C; Gomberg, S; Pan, Shermaine; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Parikh, S; Goody, R; Hingorani, M; Prince, S; Bird, T; et al. (2019)
    AIMS: Although cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine-based definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) is a standard of care for oesophageal cancer, toxicity is significant and limits its use in elderly and frail patients. Weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based dCRT provides a viable alternative, although prospective data are lacking in the dCRT setting. Here we report the results of a national, multicentre retrospective review of outcome in patients treated with weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based dCRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicentre retrospective study of nine radiotherapy centres across the UK we evaluated the outcome of patients who had non-metastatic, histologically confirmed carcinoma of the oesophagus (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell or undifferentiated; World Health Organization performance status 0-2; stage I-III disease) and had been selected to receive weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based dCRT as they were considered not suitable for cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine-based dCRT. dCRT consisted of carboplatin AUC 2 and paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29) and the recommended radiation dose was 50 Gy in 25 daily fractions. We assessed overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS; overall, local and distant), proportion of patients who were failure free at the response assessment (12 weeks after dCRT), treatment compliance and toxicity. RESULTS: In total, 214 patients from nine UK centres were treated between 15 February 2013 and 19 March 2019: 39.7% of patients were ?75 years; 18.7% ? 80 years. Indications for weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based dCRT were comorbidities (47.2%), clinician choice (36.4%) and poor tolerance/progression on cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine induction chemotherapy (15.8%). The median overall survival was 24.28 months (95% confidence interval 20.07-30.09) and the median PFS was 16.33 months (95% confidence interval 14.29-20.96). Following treatment, 69.1% (96/139) had a combined complete response on endoscopy with non-progression (complete response/partial response/stable disease) on imaging. The 1- and 2-year overall survival rates for this patient group were 81.9% (95% confidence interval 75.6-86.8%) and 50.6% (95% confidence interval 40.5-60.0%), respectively. Thirty-three per cent (n = 70) of patients experienced at least one grade 3 + acute toxicity (grade 3/4 haematological: 10%; grade 3/4 non-haematological: 32%) and there were no treatment-related deaths. 86.9% of patients completed at least four cycles of concomitant weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based chemotherapy and planned radiotherapy was completed in 97.7% (209/214). CONCLUSION: Weekly carboplatin-paclitaxel-based CRT seems to be well tolerated in elderly patients and in those with comorbidities, where cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine-based dCRT is contraindicated. Survival outcomes are comparable with cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine-based dCRT.
  • Retrospective study on mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms from five European centres

    Frizziero, Melissa; Wang, Xin; Chakrabarty, Bipasha; Childs, A; Luong, TV; Walter, T; Khan, MS; Morgan, M; Christian, A; Elshafie, M; et al. (2019)
    AIM: To investigate clinical-pathological characteristics, treatment modalities and survival outcomes of a retrospective cohort of patients with a diagnosis of MiNEN. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of MiNEN were identified at 5 European centres. Patient data were retrospectively collected from medical records. Pathological samples were reviewed to ascertain compliance with the 2017 World Health Organisation definition of MiNEN. Tumour responses to systemic treatment were assessed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours 1.1. Kaplan-Meier analysis was applied to estimate survival outcomes. Associations between clinical-pathological characteristics and survival outcomes were explored using Log-rank test for equality of survivors functions (univariate) and Cox-regression analysis (multivariable). RESULTS: Sixty-nine consecutive patients identified; Median age at diagnosis: 64 years. Males: 63.8%. Localised disease (curable): 53.6%. Commonest sites of origin: colon-rectum (43.5%) and oesophagus/oesophagogastric junction (15.9%). The neuroendocrine component was; predominant in 58.6%, poorly differentiated in 86.3%, and large cell in 81.25%, of cases analysed. Most distant metastases analysed (73.4%) were occupied only by a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine component. Ninety-four percent of patients with localised disease underwent curative surgery; 53% also received perioperative treatment, most often in line with protocols for adenocarcinomas from the same sites of origin. Chemotherapy was offered to most patients (68.1%) with advanced disease, and followed protocols for pure neuroendocrine carcinomas or adenocarcinomas in equal proportion. In localised cases, median recurrence free survival (RFS); 14.0 mo (95%CI: 9.2-24.4), and median overall survival (OS): 28.6 mo (95%CI: 18.3-41.1). On univariate analysis, receipt of perioperative treatment (vs surgery alone) did not improve RFS (P = 0.375), or OS (P = 0.240). In advanced cases, median progression free survival (PFS); 5.6 mo (95%CI: 4.4-7.4), and median OS; 9.0 mo (95%CI: 5.2-13.4). On univariate analysis, receipt of palliative active treatment (vs best supportive care) prolonged PFS and OS (both, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: MiNEN is most commonly driven by a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine component, and has poor prognosis. Advances in its biological understanding are needed to identify effective treatments and improve patient outcomes.
  • Cancer patterns and association with mortality and renal outcomes in non-dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease: a matched cohort study

    Chinnadurai, R; Flanagan, E; Jayson, Gordon C; Kalra, PA; Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, M6 8HD, Salford, UK. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Cancer in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an added burden to their overall morbidity and mortality. Cancer can be a cause or an effect of CKD. In CKD patients, a better understanding of cancer distribution and associations can aid in the proper planning of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and in the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, many of which are precluded in more advanced CKD. This study aims to investigate the distribution and the association of cancer with mortality, renal progression and RRT assignment in a non-dialysis dependent CKD cohort, few studies have investigated this in the past. METHODS: The study was carried out on 2952 patients registered in the Salford Kidney Study (SKS) between October 2002 and December 2016. A comparative analysis was performed between 339 patients with a history of cancer (previous and current) and 2613 patients without cancer at recruitment. A propensity score matched cohort of 337 patients was derived from each group and used for analysis. Cox-regression models and Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to compare the association of cancer with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) outcomes. Linear regression analysis was applied to generate the annual rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (delta eGFR). RESULTS: Of our cohort, 13.3% had a history of cancer at recruitment and the annual rate of de novo cancers in the non-cancer patients was 1.6%. Urogenital cancers including kidney and bladder, and prostate and testicle in males, ovary and uterus in females, were the most prevalent cancers (46%), as expected from the anatomical or physiological roles of these organs and relationship to nephrology. Over a median follow-up of 48?months, 1084 (36.7%) of patients died. All-cause mortality was higher in the previous and current cancer group (49.6% vs 35%, p?<?0.001), primarily because of cancer-specific mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a strong association of cancer with all-cause mortality (HR:1.41; 95%CI: 1.12-1.78; p?=?0.004). There was no difference between the groups regarding reaching end-stage renal disease (26% in both groups) or the rate of decline in eGFR (-?0.97 for cancer vs -?0.93?mL/min/year for non-cancer, p?=?0.93). RRT uptake was similar between the groups (17.2% vs 19.3%, p?=?0.49). CONCLUSIONS: Cancer status proved to be an added burden and an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality but not for renal progression. CKD patients with a previous or current history of cancer should be assessed on a case by case basis in planning for renal replacement therapy options, and the presence of cancer should not be a limitation for RRT provision including transplantation.
  • Identification of gene specific cis-regulatory elements during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells: An integrative approach using high-throughput datasets

    Vijayabaskar, MS; Goode, DK; Obier, N; Lichtinger, M; Emmett, AML; Abidin, FNZ; Shar, N; Hannah, R; Assi, SA; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; et al. (2019)
    Gene expression governs cell fate, and is regulated via a complex interplay of transcription factors and molecules that change chromatin structure. Advances in sequencing-based assays have enabled investigation of these processes genome-wide, leading to large datasets that combine information on the dynamics of gene expression, transcription factor binding and chromatin structure as cells differentiate. While numerous studies focus on the effects of these features on broader gene regulation, less work has been done on the mechanisms of gene-specific transcriptional control. In this study, we have focussed on the latter by integrating gene expression data for the in vitro differentiation of murine ES cells to macrophages and cardiomyocytes, with dynamic data on chromatin structure, epigenetics and transcription factor binding. Combining a novel strategy to identify communities of related control elements with a penalized regression approach, we developed individual models to identify the potential control elements predictive of the expression of each gene. Our models were compared to an existing method and evaluated using the existing literature and new experimental data from embryonic stem cell differentiation reporter assays. Our method is able to identify transcriptional control elements in a gene specific manner that reflect known regulatory relationships and to generate useful hypotheses for further testing.

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