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The repository contains the research outputs from staff and students at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust and Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute.
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Over 7000 peer reviewed articles, reviews and selected publications from 1933 onwards.
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Pan-cancer analysis of whole genomesFibrosis and fat replacement in skeletal muscle are major complications that lead to a loss of mobility in chronic muscle disorders, such as muscular dystrophy. However, the in vivo properties of adipogenic stem and precursor cells remain unclear, mainly due to the high cell heterogeneity in skeletal muscles. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing to decomplexify interstitial cell populations in healthy and dystrophic skeletal muscles. We identify an interstitial CD142-positive cell population in mice and humans that is responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis through GDF10 secretion. Furthermore, we show that the interstitial cell composition is completely altered in muscular dystrophy, with a near absence of CD142-positive cells. The identification of these adipo-regulatory cells in the skeletal muscle aids our understanding of the aberrant fat deposition in muscular dystrophy, paving the way for treatments that could counteract degeneration in patients with muscular dystrophy.
Favourable outcomes for high-risk diffuse large b-cell lymphoma (IPI 3-5) treated with front-line r-CODOX-M/R-IVAC chemotherapy: results of a phase 2 UK NCRI TrialBACKGROUND: Outcomes for patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy are suboptimal but, to date, no alternative regimen has been shown to improve survival rates. This phase 2 trial aimed to assess the efficacy of a Burkitt-like approach for high-risk DLBCL using the dose-intense R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible pts were aged 18-65 years with stage II-IV untreated DLBCL and an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score of 3-5. Patients received alternating cycles of CODOX-M and IVAC (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and high-dose methotrexate [CODOX-M] alternating with ifosfamide, etoposide and high-dose cytarabine [IVAC]) chemotherapy plus 8 doses of rituximab. Response was assessed by CT after completing all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: 111 eligible patients were registered; median age was 50 years, IPI score was 3 (60.4%) or 4-5 (39.6%), 54% had a performance status /=2 and 9% had central nervous system involvement. 85 patients (76.6%) completed all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. There were 5 treatment-related deaths (4.3%)
Prognostic gene expression signature for high-grade serous ovarian cancerBACKGROUND: Median overall survival (OS) for women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is approximately four years, yet survival varies widely between patients. There are no well-established, gene expression signatures associated with prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop a robust prognostic signature for overall survival in HGSOC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Expression of 513 genes, selected from a meta-analysis of 1455 tumours and other candidates, were measured using NanoString technology from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour tissue from 3,769 women with HGSOC from multiple studies. Elastic net regularization for survival analysis was applied to develop a prognostic model for 5-year OS, trained on 2702 tumours from fifteen studies and evaluated on an independent set of 1067 tumours from six studies. RESULTS: Expression levels of 276 genes were associated with OS [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05] in covariate-adjusted single gene analyses. The top five genes were TAP1, ZFHX4, CXCL9, FBN1, and PTGER3 (P < 0.001). The best performing prognostic signature included 101 genes enriched in pathways with treatment implications. Each gain of one standard deviation in the gene expression score (GES) conferred a greater than two-fold increase in risk of death [HR = 2.35 (2.02, 2.71); P < 0.001]. Median survival by GES quintile was 9.5 (8.3, --), 5.4 (4.6, 7.0), 3.8 (3.3, 4.6), 3.2 (2.9, 3.7) and 2.3 (2.1, 2.6) years. CONCLUSION: The OTTA-SPOT (Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium - Stratified Prognosis of Ovarian Tumours) gene expression signature may improve risk stratification in clinical trials by identifying patients who are least likely to achieve 5-year survival. The identified novel genes associated with the outcome may also yield opportunities for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches.
Glucocorticoids rapidly inhibit cell migration through a novel, non-transcriptional HDAC6 pathwayGlucocorticoids (GCs) act through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to regulate immunity, energy metabolism, and tissue repair. Upon ligand binding, activated GR mediates cellular effects by regulating gene expression, but some GR effects can occur rapidly without new transcription. We show GCs rapidly inhibit cell migration, in response to both GR agonist and antagonist ligand binding. The inhibitory effect on migration is prevented by GR knockdown with siRNA, confirming GR specificity, but not by actinomycin D treatment, suggesting a non-transcriptional mechanism. We identified a rapid onset increase in microtubule polymerisation following glucocorticoid treatment, identifying cytoskeletal stabilisation as the likely mechanism of action. HDAC6 overexpression, but not knockdown of alphaTAT1, rescued the GC effect, implicating HDAC6 as the GR effector. Consistent with this hypothesis, ligand-dependent cytoplasmic interaction between GR and HDAC6 was demonstrated by quantitative imaging. Taken together, we propose that activated GR inhibits HDAC6 function and thereby increases the stability of the microtubule network to reduce cell motility. We therefore report a novel, non-transcriptional mechanism whereby GCs impair cell motility through inhibition of HDAC6 and rapid reorganization of the cell architecture.