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The repository contains the research outputs from staff and students at The Christie NHS Foundation Trust and Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute.
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Over 7000 peer reviewed articles, reviews and selected publications from 1933 onwards.
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VIOLETTE: Randomised phase II study of olaparib (ola) plus ceralasertib (cer) or adavosertib (ada) vs ola alone in patients (pts) with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC)Background Combining DNA damage response (DDR) inhibitors to inhibit multiple DDR pathways may enhance tumour cell death. Preclinical models show synergistic antitumour effects of ola (PARP1 inhibitor) + cer (ATR inhibitor) or ada (WEE1 inhibitor). VIOLETTE (NCT03330847), a phase 2 open-label study, evaluated ola ± cer or ada as 2nd–3rd line in pts with mTNBC. Methods Randomisation was stratified within each arm by mutation status (BRCAm, non-BRCAm homologous recombination repair pathway mutations [HRRm], or no HRRm [non-HRRm]) based on a prospective central tumour test and prior platinum therapy. Pts received ola 300 mg BID, 28-d cycle; cer 160 mg d 1–7 + ola 300 mg BID (cer+ola), 28-d cycle; or ada 150 mg BID d 1–3, 8–10 + ola 200 mg BID (ada+ola), 21-d cycle. Primary study endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), safety, and tolerability. Ada+ola was discontinued early due to higher than expected grade ≥3 haematologic toxicity, which limited its interpretation. We focus on cer+ola vs ola. The sponsor stopped VIOLETTE after reviewing BRCAm stratum efficacy data. Results Of 273 pts (450 planned; median age: 53 y), 114 received ola, 112 cer+ola, and 47 ada+ola. Primary analyses showed no statistically significant difference in PFS for cer+ola vs ola (BRCAm: n=83; HR 1.02 [90% CI 0.63–1.66, P=0.94], HRRm: n=40; 0.54 [0.28–1.03, 0.13], non-HRRm: n=103; 0.76 [0.50–1.14, 0.30]). No statistically significant difference in ORR was seen for cer+ola vs ola in BRCAm (50% vs 44%) or HRRm (20% vs 15%). ORR was higher in non-HRRm for cer+ola (15%, n=8) vs ola (4%, n=2) (odds ratio 4.45; 90% CI 1.30–21.20, P=0.04). In all pts, nausea and anaemia were the most common adverse events (AEs). Grade ≥3 AEs: 36% ola, 47% cer+ola, 78% ada+ola. Details of exploratory and subgroup analyses will be presented. Conclusions Cer+ola did not improve PFS vs ola as 2nd–3rd line for mTNBC. Clinical significance of higher ORR with cer+ola in non-HRRm pts is unclear. Cer+ola had a manageable safety profile consistent with known profiles of each. Further analyses may identify pts likely to benefit from each treatment.
Biomarker and multivariate analyses results from AIPAC: A phase IIb study comparing eftilagimod alpha (a soluble LAG-3 protein) vs placebo in combination with weekly paclitaxel in HR+HER2-metastatic breast cancerBackground Eftilagimod alpha (EF) is a soluble LAG-3 protein (LAG-3Ig) that binds to a subset of MHC class II molecules and mediates activation of antigen-presenting cells followed by T-cells. AIPAC investigated EF + paclitaxel (PA). We hereby report exploratory biomarker and multivariate analyses. Methods This double-blinded, 1:1 randomized phase IIb trial enrolled pts with HR+ HER2- MBC. Pts received PA (80 mg/m2 IV on D1, D8, D15) + EF (30 mg) or placebo (PL) on D2, D16 per cycle (28 days) for 24 wks + EF/PL for 52 wks. Exploratory EPs were potential biomarkers and their correlation to efficacy. Multivariate analysis used backward selection p>0.15 (univariate cox model). Blood cell subsets (CD4; CD8, PBMCs, monocytes) & Th1 biomarker CXCL-10 were measured centrally. Comparison was done using 2-sided Wilcoxon test. Results 226 pts [efti n=114; placebo n=112] were included. Pts were endocrine resistant (84%), pre-treated with CDK4/6 inhibitors (44.2%). Post-study treatment was similar. Safety/efficacy were reported at SABCS 2020 #132; SITC 2021 #948 In the multivariate predictive model 4 groups (high Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio [NLR]; no prior taxanes; low monocytes and <5 yrs since diagnosis) were significant for OS (Table) On treatment mean fold-changes of monocytes (5.81 vs. 2.29; p=0.025), PBMCs (2.00 vs. 1.41; p=0.041), T cells (2.28 vs. 1.48; p=0.086), & CXCL10 (2.78 vs. 1.56; p=0.06) were significantly higher (EF vs PL) and linked to higher OS. Post baseline CD4 (median 896/μl vs. 736 μl; p=0.038) & CD8 (median 377/μl vs. 223 μl; p=0.005) T cell count increased significantly in pts with higher OS EF vs. PL. Conclusions EF + PA elicits significant effects on different immune cells which is significantly associated with higher OS. Multivariate analysis identified potential target populations for phase III.
A phase II trial of higher radiotherapy dose in the eradication of early rectal cancer (APHRODITE): protocol for a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trialIntroduction: The standard of care for patients with localised rectal cancer is radical surgery, often combined with preoperative neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy. While oncologically effective, this treatment strategy is associated with operative mortality risks, significant morbidity and stoma formation. An alternative approach is chemoradiotherapy to try to achieve a sustained clinical complete response (cCR). This non-surgical management can be attractive, particularly for patients at high risk of surgical complications. Modern radiotherapy techniques allow increased treatment conformality, enabling increased radiation dose to the tumour while reducing dose to normal tissue. The objective of this trial is to assess if radiotherapy dose escalation increases the cCR rate, with acceptable toxicity, for treatment of patients with early rectal cancer unsuitable for radical surgery. Methods and analysis: APHRODITE (A Phase II trial of Higher RadiOtherapy Dose In The Eradication of early rectal cancer) is a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled phase II trial aiming to recruit 104 participants from 10 to 12 UK sites. Participants will be allocated with a 2:1 ratio of intervention:control. The intervention is escalated dose radiotherapy (62 Gy to primary tumour, 50.4 Gy to surrounding mesorectum in 28 fractions) using simultaneous integrated boost. The control arm will receive 50.4 Gy to the primary tumour and surrounding mesorectum. Both arms will use intensity-modulated radiotherapy and daily image guidance, combined with concurrent chemotherapy (capecitabine, 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin or omitted). The primary endpoint is the proportion of participants with cCR at 6 months after start of treatment. Secondary outcomes include early and late toxicities, time to stoma formation, overall survival and patient-reported outcomes (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaires QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29, low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) questionnaire).
Short and long-term effect of dexamethasone on the transcriptome profile of primary human trabecular meshwork cells in vitroIn the quest of identifying newer molecular targets for the management of glucocorticoid-induced ocular hypertension (GC-OHT) and glaucoma (GCG), several microarray studies have attempted to investigate the genome-wide transcriptome profiling of primary human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells in response to dexamethasone (DEX). However, no studies are reported so far to demonstrate the temporal changes in the expression of genes in the cultured human TM cells in response to DEX treatment. Therefore, in the present study, the time-dependent changes in the genome-wide expression of genes in primary human TM cells after short (16 hours: 16 h) and long exposure (7 days: 7 d) of DEX was investigated using RNA sequencing. There were 199 (118 up-regulated; 81 down-regulated) and 525 (119 up-regulated; 406 down-regulated) DEGs in 16 h and 7 d treatment groups respectively. The unique genes identified in 16 h and 7 d treatment groups were 152 and 478 respectively. This study found a distinct gene signature and pathways between two treatment regimes. Longer exposure of DEX treatment showed a dys-regulation of Wnt and Rap1 signaling and so highlighted potential therapeutic targets for pharmacological management of GC-OHT/glauco
Uptake and efficacy of bilateral risk reducing surgery in unaffected female BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriersBackground: Women testing positive for BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants have high lifetime risks of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). The effectiveness of risk reducing surgery (RRS) has been demonstrated in numerous previous studies. We evaluated long-term uptake, timing and effectiveness of risk reducing mastectomy (RRM) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in healthy BRCA1/2 carriers. Methods: Women were prospectively followed up from positive genetic test (GT) result to censor date. χ² testing compared categorical variables; Cox regression model estimated HRs and 95% CI for BC/OC cases associated with RRS, and impact on all-cause mortality; Kaplan-Meier curves estimated cumulative RRS uptake. The annual cancer incidence was estimated by women-years at risk. Results: In total, 887 women were included in this analysis. Mean follow-up was 6.26 years (range = 0.01-24.3; total = 4685.4 women-years). RRS was performed in 512 women, 73 before GT. Overall RRM uptake was 57.9% and RRSO uptake was 78.6%. The median time from GT to RRM was 18.4 months, and from GT to RRSO-10.0 months. Annual BC incidence in the study population was 1.28%. Relative BC risk reduction (RRM versus non-RRM) was 94%. Risk reduction of OC (RRSO versus non-RRSO) was 100%. Conclusion: Over a 24-year period, we observed an increasing number of women opting for RRS. We showed that the timing of RRS remains suboptimal, especially in women undergoing RRSO. Both RRM and RRSO showed a significant effect on relevant cancer risk reduction. However, there was no statistically significant RRSO protective effect on BC.