2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10541/91375
Title:
Relationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer.
Authors:
Mostafa, Mostafa H; Sheweita, S A; O'Connor, Peter J
Abstract:
Carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the most common malignancy in the Middle East and parts of Africa where schistosomiasis is a widespread problem. Much evidence supports the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: this includes the geographical correlation between the two conditions, the distinctive patterns of gender and age at diagnosis, the clinicopathological identity of schistosome-associated bladder cancer, and extensive evidence in experimentally infected animals. Multiple factors have been suggested as causative agents in schistosome-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Of these, N-nitroso compounds appear to be of particular importance since they were found at high levels in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Various strains of bacteria that can mediate nitrosation reactions leading to the formation of N-nitrosamines have been identified in the urine of subjects with schistosomiasis at higher intensities of infection than in normal subjects. In experimental schistosomiasis, the activities of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes are increased soon after infection but are reduced again during the later chronic stages of the disease. Not only could this prolong the period of exposure to activated N-nitrosamines, but also inflammatory cells, stimulated as a result of the infection, may induce the endogenous synthesis of N-nitrosamines as well as generating oxygen radicals. Higher than normal levels of host cell DNA damage are therefore anticipated, and they have indeed been observed in the case of alkylation damage, together with an inefficiency in the capacity of relevant enzymes to repair this damaged DNA. In experimental schistosomiasis, it was also found that endogenous levels of host cell DNA damage were related to the intensity of infection. All of these factors could contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with schistosomiasis, and in particular, the gene changes observed may have potential for use as biomarkers in the early detection of bladder cancer that may assist in alleviating the problem.
Affiliation:
Institute for Graduate Studies and Research, University of Alexandria, Chatby 21526, Alexandria, Egypt.
Citation:
Relationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer. 1999, 12 (1):97-111 Clin. Microbiol. Rev.
Journal:
Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Issue Date:
Jan-1999
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10541/91375
PubMed ID:
9880476
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
0893-8512
Appears in Collections:
All Paterson Institute for Cancer Research

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorMostafa, Mostafa Hen
dc.contributor.authorSheweita, S Aen
dc.contributor.authorO'Connor, Peter Jen
dc.date.accessioned2010-02-08T11:28:49Z-
dc.date.available2010-02-08T11:28:49Z-
dc.date.issued1999-01-
dc.identifier.citationRelationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer. 1999, 12 (1):97-111 Clin. Microbiol. Rev.en
dc.identifier.issn0893-8512-
dc.identifier.pmid9880476-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10541/91375-
dc.description.abstractCarcinoma of the urinary bladder is the most common malignancy in the Middle East and parts of Africa where schistosomiasis is a widespread problem. Much evidence supports the association between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer: this includes the geographical correlation between the two conditions, the distinctive patterns of gender and age at diagnosis, the clinicopathological identity of schistosome-associated bladder cancer, and extensive evidence in experimentally infected animals. Multiple factors have been suggested as causative agents in schistosome-associated bladder carcinogenesis. Of these, N-nitroso compounds appear to be of particular importance since they were found at high levels in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis-associated bladder cancer. Various strains of bacteria that can mediate nitrosation reactions leading to the formation of N-nitrosamines have been identified in the urine of subjects with schistosomiasis at higher intensities of infection than in normal subjects. In experimental schistosomiasis, the activities of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes are increased soon after infection but are reduced again during the later chronic stages of the disease. Not only could this prolong the period of exposure to activated N-nitrosamines, but also inflammatory cells, stimulated as a result of the infection, may induce the endogenous synthesis of N-nitrosamines as well as generating oxygen radicals. Higher than normal levels of host cell DNA damage are therefore anticipated, and they have indeed been observed in the case of alkylation damage, together with an inefficiency in the capacity of relevant enzymes to repair this damaged DNA. In experimental schistosomiasis, it was also found that endogenous levels of host cell DNA damage were related to the intensity of infection. All of these factors could contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer in patients with schistosomiasis, and in particular, the gene changes observed may have potential for use as biomarkers in the early detection of bladder cancer that may assist in alleviating the problem.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.subjectUrinary Bladder Canceren
dc.subjectCancerous Cell Transformationen
dc.subject.meshAnimals-
dc.subject.meshCell Transformation, Neoplastic-
dc.subject.meshHumans-
dc.subject.meshSchistosomiasis-
dc.subject.meshUrinary Bladder Neoplasms-
dc.titleRelationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentInstitute for Graduate Studies and Research, University of Alexandria, Chatby 21526, Alexandria, Egypt.en
dc.identifier.journalClinical Microbiology Reviewsen
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